Advertisement

Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 75, Issue 3–4, pp 195–204 | Cite as

Deposit of zinc and manganese in an aqueous environment mediated by microbial mats

  • Judith Bender
  • Jon R. Washington
  • Bianca Graves
  • Peter Phillips
  • Godfried Abotsi
Article

Abstract

Microbial mats have been developed to sequester heavy metals from contaminated water. Mixed populations of photosynthetic and heterotrophic bacteria, dominated by Scillatoria spp., were developed for metal tolerance and integrated into a durable, self-sustaining community of microbes stimulated by and attached to ensiled grass. The mat was immobilized on glass wool and layered in flow-through baffled tanks. After allowing 8 weeks for the maturation of the mat, mixed solutions of Zn and Mn (15–16 mg L−1) were passed through a three-tank experimental series. Effluent from each tank was first sampled and then applied to the next tank. This procedure was repeated in triplicate and with six applications of new metal solution per three-tank series. By the third tank, the target metal concentration <1 mg L−1 was always achieved. Mean percentages of the initial influent concentration removed by tanks 1, 2 and 3, respectively, were 72, 93 and 98 for Zn and 78, 97 and 99 for Mn. Mean metal concentrations in the effluents (average of 6 applications) were, for tank 1: Zn (mg L−1) 5.0, Mn (mg L−1) 4.2; for tank 2: Zn 1.6, Mn 0.75; for tank 3: Zn 0.53, Mn 0.19. Mean effluent concentrations from each of the three sequential treatments (average of 6 applications per tank) were for Zn (mg L−1) 5.0, 1.6 and 0.53; for Mn (mg L−1) were 4.2, 0.75 and 0.19. Thus target concentrations were reached in experimental tank 2 for Mn and tank 3 for Zn. Metal removal in the control tank series, containing glass wool only, was 37% for Zn and 5% for Mn (average of 6 applications). Oxygen and redox potential analyses of the mat/glass wool matrix revealed a heterogenous structure of anoxic and oxic zones. Zeta potential analysis of the mat samples identified a mat surface charge ranging from −12.3 to −69.2 mV. Various metal removal mechanisms possibly involved with metal sequestering include surface binding to the mat or to mat exudates trapped within the glass wool, precipitation of the metals with anions present in the oxic/anoxic zones, mat mediation of the water conditions in favor of metal-oxide precipitation and active transport of the metals into the cell.

Keywords

Metal Concentration Heterotrophic Bacterium Metal Removal Glass Wool Metal Tolerance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, M. B. and Arnon, D. I.: 1955, Lemn Pl. Physiol. 30, 366.Google Scholar
  2. Archibold, E., Ibeanusi, V., Bender, J., and Gould, J.: 1989, in C. E. O'Rear and G. C. Lewellyn (eds.), Biodeterioration Research II, Plenum Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  3. Bar-Or, Y. and Shilo, M: 1988, Meth. Enzymol. 167, 616.Google Scholar
  4. Bender, J., Gould, J. P., Vatacharapijarn, Y, and Young, J.: In press, Journal Water Environment Federation. Google Scholar
  5. Bender, J., Gould, J. P., Vatcharapijarn, Y., and Saha, G.: 1991, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 59, 359.Google Scholar
  6. Bender, J., Archibold, E. E., Ibeanusi, V., and Gould, J. P.: 1989a, Water, Science and Technology 21(12), 1661.Google Scholar
  7. Bender, J., Vatcharapijarn, Y., and Russell, A.: 1989b, Aquaculture Engineering 8, 407.Google Scholar
  8. Canfield, D. E. and Des Marais, D. J.: 1991, Science 251, 1471.Google Scholar
  9. Douka, C. E.: 1980, Applied and Environmental Microbiology 9, 89.Google Scholar
  10. Fattom, A. and Shilo, M.: 1984, Arch Microbiol. 139, 421.Google Scholar
  11. Herman, J. C. and Thompson, L. E. (eds.): 1974, Silage Production and Use, Iowa State University of Science and Technology Cooperative Extension Service, Ames, IA.Google Scholar
  12. Phillips, P. and Bender, J.; 1993, Pilot Scale Testing of Manganese Removal by Cyanobacterial-Algae Mats at Fabius Coal Mine, Alabama, Second quarterly report, Tennessee Valley Authority contract TV-89721 V.Google Scholar
  13. Phillips, P., Bender, J., Rodriguez-Eaton, S., Simms, R., and Britt, C.: 1994. Proceedings of the International Land Reclamation and Mine Drainage Conference on the Abatement of Acidic Drainage, Pittsburgh, PA.Google Scholar
  14. Rodriguez-Eaton, S., Ekanemesang, U., and Bender, J.: 1994, in J. L. Means and R. E. Hincher (eds.), Emerging Technology for Bioremediation of Metals, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Fl.Google Scholar
  15. Shilo, M.: 1989, in Y. Cohen and E. Rosenberg (eds.), Microbial Mats, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  16. Schutt, C. and Ottow, J. C. G.: 1977, Environmental Biogeochemistry and Geomicrobiology 3, 869.Google Scholar
  17. Stumm, W. and Morgan, J. J.: 1981, Aquatic Chemistry, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  18. Tayler, P. A. and Marshall, K. C.: 1967, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 33, 171.Google Scholar
  19. Wilson, D. E.: 1980, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 44, 1311.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Judith Bender
    • 1
  • Jon R. Washington
    • 1
  • Bianca Graves
    • 1
  • Peter Phillips
    • 1
  • Godfried Abotsi
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Center for Science and TechnologyClark Atlanta UniversityAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations