Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 82, Issue 3–4, pp 695–711 | Cite as

The metal — Metal interactions in biological systems Part III. Daphnia magna

  • Piotr Tomasik
  • Christopher H. D. Magadza
  • Sungano Mhizha
  • Alfred Chirume


The toxicity of single metal ions: Al, Co(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Fe(III), Mg, Mn(II), Mo(VI), Ni(II), Se(VI), V(V) and Zn and the following pairs of them: Al-Co, Al-Mg, Al-Mo, Al-Se, Al-Zn, Cr-Co, Cr-Mg, Cr-Mo, Cr-Se, Cr-Zn, Cu-Co, Cu-Mg, Cu-Mo, Cu-Se, Cu-Zn, Fe-Co, Fe-Mg, Fe-Mo, Fe-Se, Fe-Zn, Mn-Co, Mn-Mg, Mn-Mo, Mn-Se, Mn-Zn, Ni-Co, Ni-Mg, Ni-Mo, Ni-Se, Ni-Zn, V-Co, V-Mg, V-Mo, V-Se, V-Zn, Zn-Co, Zn-Mg, Zn-Mo, and Zn-Se on Daphnia magna was examined. The most prominent antagonism in the toxicity was observed in the following ion pairs: Al-Mo(VI), Cr(III)-Co(II), Cr(III)-Mg, Cr(III)-Mo(VI), Cr(III)-Se(VI), Cr(III)-Zn, Fe(III)-Se(VI), Mn(II)-Mg, Mn(II-Se(VI), Zn-Mg and Zn-Mo(VI). The strong synergism was found for the following ion systems: Cr(III)-Se(VI), Cr(III)-Zn, Fe(III)-Se(VI), Mn(II)-Zn, Mn(II)-Se(VI), Ni(II)-Co(II), Ni(II)-Mo(VI), Ni(II)-Se(VI), Ni(II)-Zn, V(V)-Co(II), V(V)-Mo(VI), V(V)- Se(VI), and V(V)-Zn. Synergism and antagonism in toxicity were dependent on water hardness as well as on the ion concentration. Adaptive procesess of the animals to the toxic environment could also be observed. Thus, the toxicity of the single ions and their pairs was not linear with respect to time.


Water Hardness Toxic Environment Strong Synergism 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Piotr Tomasik
    • 1
  • Christopher H. D. Magadza
    • 2
  • Sungano Mhizha
    • 1
  • Alfred Chirume
    • 2
  1. 1.Chemistry DepartmentUniversity of ZimbabweHarareZimbabwe
  2. 2.Lake Kariba Research StationUniversity of ZimbabweKaribaZimbabwe

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