Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 73, Issue 1, pp 157–167 | Cite as

Phosphorus removal from secondary-treated wastewater using overland flow

  • Georgia Turner
  • Deborah Crawford
  • Richard J. Watts
  • John H. Zirschky


The removal of total phosphorus from secondary effluent by overland flow was studied using five terraces constructed 91 m in length and 140 or 70 m in width. Three methods of wastewater application were tested on the terraces including sprinkler, fan nozzle, and gated pipe. In addition, three different application rates were used. Samples of applied wastewater, runoff collected at points along the terraces, effluent from each terrace, and soils were analyzed for total phosphorus over a ten-month period. Hydraulic application rate had a significant effect on the removal of total phosphorus; the removal efficiency was inversely proportional to the hydraulic application rate. However, the method of application did not have an effect on phosphorus removal. An increase in phosphorus was observed in terrace soil samples; the increase was attributed to adsorption and precipitation.


Precipitation Wastewater Phosphorus Soil Sample Removal Efficiency 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georgia Turner
    • 1
  • Deborah Crawford
    • 2
  • Richard J. Watts
    • 3
  • John H. Zirschky
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Public WorksCarson CityUSA
  2. 2.Duck Creek Wastewater Treatment PlantGarlandUSA
  3. 3.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  4. 4.Office of Senator James JeffordsWashington D. C.USA

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