Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 64, Issue 1–2, pp 385–404 | Cite as

A geographically-based ecosystem model and its application to the carbon balance of the luquillo forest, Puerto Rico

  • Charles A. S. Hall
  • Marshall R. Taylor
  • Edwin Everham
Part IV Modeling Carbon Fluxes

Abstract

We have developed a geography-based computer model of the Bisley Experimental Watershed ecosystem that simulates basic forest dynamics as a function of meteorological inputs and hydrologic simulation, as influenced by topography, soils, land use, and cover. The model is parameterized based on steady slate levels of, and hurricane impacts on, biomass, necromass and rate processes of the tabonuco forest, and is stable over decades. Over a 60 yr simulation (without hurricanes) leaf biomass remains approximately constant and woody biomass of those regions not having severe sunlight, moisture, or nutrient limitations increases slowly in agreement with observations. Necromass decreases slowly. Small quantities of C leave the ecosystem in stream water, especially during large rain events. When topographically-sensitive hurricane impacts are included, leaf and woody biomass are converted to necromass. In the model the recovery of the watersheds' hydrology, leaf and woody biomass, and necromass are consistent with field observations. We used this model to simulate the C dynamics of the forest over centurics using empirical values and found that (his forest acted to pump C from the atmosphere to the ocean at a rate of about 90 kg ha−1 yr−1.

Keywords

Biomass Rate Process Field Observation Stream Water Rain Event 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arnold, J.G., Williams, J.R., Nicks, A.D. and Sammons, N.B. (1989) ’SWWRB, a basin scale simulation model for soil and water resources management’, Texas A & M University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bacastow, R. and Keeling, C. (1973) ’Changes from A.D. 1700 to 2070 as deduced from a geochemical model’ in G.M. Woodwell and E.V. Pecan (eds.), Carbon and the Biosphere, 24th Brookhaven Symposium in Biology, Upton NY, pp. 86–135.Google Scholar
  3. Broecker, W.S., Takahashi, T., Simpson, H.J. and Peng, T.-H. (1979) ’Fate of fossilfuel carbon dioxide and the global carbon budget’, Science 206, 409.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, S., Lugo, A.E., Silander, S. and Liegel, L. (1983) ’Research History and Opportunities in the Luquillo Experimental Forest’, USDA/USFS: New Orleans LA.Google Scholar
  5. Costanza, R., Sklar, F.H. and White, M.L. (1990) ’Modeling coastal landscape dynamics’, BioScience 40, 91–107.Google Scholar
  6. Degens, E.T., Kempe, S. and Richey, J.E. (eds.) (1991) Biogeochemistry of Major World Rivers. John Wiley and Sons, 356 p.Google Scholar
  7. Detwiler, R.P. and Hall, C.A.S. (1988) ’Tropical forests and the global carbon budget’, Science 239, 42–47.Google Scholar
  8. Everham, E.M., Wooster, K.B. and Hall, C.A.S. (1991) ’Forest landscape climate modeling’, in M.A. Buford (ed.). Proceedings of the 1991 Symposium on Systems Analysis in Forest Resources USFS. Southeastern Forest Exp. Station. Technical paper SE-74. Ashville NC.Google Scholar
  9. French, P.N. and Taylor, M.R. (1982) ’Interactive management and updating of spatial data bases’, Proceedings of the National Conference on Energy Resource Management, Baltimore MD.Google Scholar
  10. Loucks, D.P., French, P.N. and Taylor, M.R. (1986) ’Interactive modeling and display of spatial and time-varying phenomena using CAPLIB’, Proc. 4th Annual ASCE Conference on Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, Boston.Google Scholar
  11. Lugo, A.E. and Brown, S. (1986) ’Steady state terrestrial ecosystems and the global carbon cycle’, Vegetatio 68, 83–90.Google Scholar
  12. Hall, C.A.S., Detwiler, R.P., Bogdonoff P.S. and Underhill, P.S. (1985) ’Land use change and carbon exchange in the tropics: I. Detailed estimates for Costa Rica, Panama, Peru, and Bolivia’, Environmental Management. 9, 313–334.Google Scholar
  13. Hall, C.A.S. and Uhlig, J. (1991) ’Refining estimates of carbon released from tropical land-use change’, Can. J. For. Res. 21, 118–131.Google Scholar
  14. Hall, C.A.S., Stanford, J.S. and Hauer, R. (in press) ’The distribution and abundance of organisms as a consequence of energy balances along multiple environmental gradients’, Oikos.Google Scholar
  15. Houghton, R.A., Hobbie, J.E., Melillo, J.M., Moore, B., Peterson, B.J., Shaver, G.R. and Woodwell, G.M. (1983) ’Changes in the carbon content of terrestrial biota and soils between 1860 and 1980: A net release of CO2 to the atmosphere’, Ecological Monographs 53, 235–262.Google Scholar
  16. Odum, H.T. Summary, an emerging view of the ecological system at El Verde in Google Scholar
  17. Odum, H.T. and Pigeon, R.F. (1970) ’A tropical rain forest: A study of irradiation and ecology at El Verde, Puerto Rico’, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge TN.Google Scholar
  18. Revelle, R. and Suess, H.E. (1957) ’Carbon dioxide exchange between atmospheric and ocean, and the question of an increase of atmospheric C02 during the past decades’, Tellus 9, 18–27.Google Scholar
  19. Richey, J.E. (1981) ‘Fluxes of organic matter in rivers relative to the global carbon cycle, in G. Likens, F. Mackenzie, J. Richey, J. Sedell, and K. Turekian, ed., Flux of Organic Carbon by Rivers to the Oceans. National Research Council/DOE Conf. 8009140.Google Scholar
  20. RPA (Resources Planning Associates, Incorporated) (1991) *MPA Series Users's Guide. Ithaca NY.Google Scholar
  21. Scatena, F.N., Silver, W., Siccima, T. and Sanchez, M.J. (unpublished manuscript) Biomass and nutrient content of the Bisley experimental watersheds, Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico.Google Scholar
  22. Taylor M.R., French, P.N. and Loucks, D.P. (1983) ’Digital color mapping and resource planning’, Proceedings of the First National Conference on Microcomputers in Engineering, ASCE, Orlando FL.Google Scholar
  23. Tans, P.P., Fung, I.Y., Takahashi, T. (1990) ’Observational constraints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget’, Science (Washington DC) 247, 1431–1438.Google Scholar
  24. U.S. Department of Agriculture. (1972) Soil Conservation Service. National Engineering Handbook, Hydrology Section 4.Google Scholar
  25. Walker, L.R., Lodge, D.J., Brokaw, N.V.L. and Waide, R.B. (1991) ’Introduction to hurricanes in the Caribbean’, Biotropica 23, 313–316.Google Scholar
  26. Williams, J.R., Nicks, A.D. and Arnold, J.G. (1985) ’Simulator for water resources in rural basins’, J. Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE 111, 970–986.Google Scholar
  27. Wooster, K. (1989). ’A geographically-based microclimatological computer model for mountainous terrain with application to the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico’. MS Thesis, SUNY ESF, Syracuse NY.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles A. S. Hall
    • 1
  • Marshall R. Taylor
    • 2
  • Edwin Everham
    • 3
  1. 1.SUNY College of Environmental Science and ForestrySyracuseUSA
  2. 2.Resources Planning Associates, Incorporated Cornell Business and Technology ParkIthacaUSA
  3. 3.SUNY College of Environmental Science and ForestrySyracuseUSA

Personalised recommendations