Implications of natural acidification for mitigation strategies in northern Sweden
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Northern Sweden has been regarded as unaffected by acid deposition, but many surface waters in the region fall within the definition of acid surface water (pH < 6.0, alkalinity < 50 mmolc m−3) permanently or during episodes. Approximatly 100 MSEK in spent annually on liming in northern Sweden. This paper summarizes our conclusions from a workshop on natural versus anthopogenic acidification held in February 1995. It was shown that organic substances have a key role in determining the acidity of surface waters in the region, although anthropogenic effects are documented in some coastal systems and in the southern mountain range. Sulfide oxidation occurs by the coast. It appears clear that many surface waters that were naturally acidic have been limed to unnatural pH levels. New criteria to screen liming candidates should be developed, and one such model based on water chemistry data is proposed.
Key wordsSurface water water chemistry DOC liming acid deposition
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