Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 63, Issue 3–4, pp 397–409 | Cite as

Formiate and acetate in wet deposition at Pallanza (NW Italy) in relation to major ion concentrations

  • R. Mosello
  • G. A. Tartari


Weekly samples of wet deposition were collected at Pallanza (NW Italy) from January 1987 to December 1988. Their chemistry is characterized by high mineral acidity, with a median pH value of 4.26; only in 2 out of 62 samples was pH higher than 6.0. Sulphate, nitrate and ammonium are the main ions. Formiate and acetate showed a volume weighted average of 7 and 4 μeq L−1, respectively; the values for the dissociated forms are 5 and 1 μeq L−1, respectively. The contribution of formiate and acetate (dissociated form) to the total ionic concentration is about 2%, while the contribution to free hydrogenion is about 13%, mainly deriving from formic acid. Seasonal variations in concentration and the relationships between organic acid and other ions indicate that the photolysis of isoprenoid compounds released into the atmosphere from vegetation is a significant source for formic acid. In the case of acetic acid there is a contribution from anthropogenic emissions, more marked during the winter period.


Acidity Formic Acid Organic Acid Photolysis Significant Source 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Analytical Methods Committee: 1987, Analyst 112, 199.Google Scholar
  2. Andreae, M. O., Talbot, R. W., Andreae, T. W., and Harris, R. C.: 1988, J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1616.Google Scholar
  3. Arca, G. and Barbanti, L.: 1989, Documenta Ist. Ital. Idrobiol. 21, 85 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Chapman, E. G., Sklarew, D. S., and Flickinger, J. S.: 1986, Atmos. Environ. 20, 1717.Google Scholar
  5. Contessini, F.: 1956, Impianti idroelettrici, Tamburini, Milano, 423 pp.Google Scholar
  6. C.S.S.: 1988, Complete statistical system with data base management and graphics, StatSoft, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 1206 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Fresenius, W., Quentin, K. E., and Schneider, W. (eds.): 1988, Water Analysis, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 804 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Fuzzi, S., Orsi, G., Nardini, G., and Facchini, M. C.: 1987, ‘Physico-Chemical Properties of Radiation Fog in the Po Valley, Italy’, in Angeletti G. and G. Restelli (eds.), Physico-chemical Behaviour of Atmospheric Pollutants, D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht, Holland, pp. 677–684.Google Scholar
  9. Fuzzi, S., Orsi, G., Nardini, G., Facchini, M. C., Mc Laren, S., Mc Laren, E., and Mariotti, M.: 1988, J. Geophys. Res. 93, 11141.Google Scholar
  10. Galloway, J. N., Likens, G. E., and Hawley, M. E.: 1984, Science 226, 829.Google Scholar
  11. Gruppo di Studio delle caratteristiche chimiche delle precipitazioni dell'Italia Settentrionale: 1987, Quaderni Ingegneria Ambientale 6, 63 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Likens, G. E., Keene, W. C., Miller, J. M., and Galloway, J. N.: 1987, J. Geophys. Res. 92, 13299.Google Scholar
  13. Long, G. L. and Winefordner, J. D.: 1983, Anal. Chem. 55, 712.Google Scholar
  14. Jacob, D. J. and Wofsy, S. C.: 1988a, J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1477.Google Scholar
  15. Jacob, D. J. and Wofsy, S. C.: 1988b, ‘Photochemical Production of Carboxylic Acids in a Remote Continental Atmosphere’, in Unsworth, N.H. (ed.), Acid Deposition Processes at High Elevation Sites, D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht, Holland (in press).Google Scholar
  16. Kawamura, K., Ng L. L., and Kaplan, I. R.: 1985, Environ. Sci. Technol. 19, 1082.Google Scholar
  17. Keene, W. C. and Galloway, J. N.: 1984, Atmos. Environ. 18, 2491.Google Scholar
  18. Keene, W. C. and Galloway, J. N.: 1986, J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14466.Google Scholar
  19. Keene, W. C. and Galloway, J. N.: 1988, Tellus 40B, 322.Google Scholar
  20. Keene, W. C., Galloway, J. N., and Holden, J. D. Jr.: 1983, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5122.Google Scholar
  21. Mosello, R., Marchetto, A., and Tartari, G. A.: 1988, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 42, 137.Google Scholar
  22. Mosello, R., Marchetto, A., and Tartari, G. A.: 1989, ‘Trends in the Chemistry of Atmospheric Deposition at Subalpine and Alpine Sites in Northern Italy’, Proc. W.M.O. Technical Conference Monitoring and Assessment of Changing Composition of the Troposphere, Sofia, Bulgaria, pp. 33–36.Google Scholar
  23. Munger, J. W., Collett, J. Jr., Daube, B. C. Jr., and Hoffmann, M. R.: 1989, Tellus 41 B, 230.Google Scholar
  24. Sanhueza, E., Elbert, W., Rondon, A., Arias, M. C., and Hermoso, M.: 1989, Tellus 41 B, 170.Google Scholar
  25. Talbot, R. W., Beecher, K. M., Harris, R. C., and Cofer, W. R. III: 1988, J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1638.Google Scholar
  26. Weathers, K. C., Likens, G. E., Bormann, F. H., Bicknell, S. H., Bormann, B. T., Daube, B. C. Jr., Eaton, J. S., Galloway, J. N., Keene, W. C., Kimball, K. D., Mc.Dowell, W. H., Siccama, T. G., Smiley, D. and Tarrant, R. A.: 1988, Environ. Sci. Technol. (in press).Google Scholar
  27. Winiwarter, W., Puxbaum, H., Fuzzi, S., Facchini, M. C., Orsi, G., Beltz, N., Enderle, K., and Jaeschke, W.: 1988, Tellus 40B, 348.Google Scholar
  28. Zimmerman, P. R., Chatfield, R. B., Fischman, J., Grutzen, P. S., and Hanst, P. L.: 1978, Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 679.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Mosello
    • 1
  • G. A. Tartari
    • 1
  1. 1.C.N.R. Istituto Italiano di IdrobiologiaPallanzaItaly

Personalised recommendations