Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 63, Issue 3–4, pp 253–271 | Cite as

Determining baselines and variability of elements in plants and soils near the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

  • J. G. Crock
  • R. C. Severson
  • L. P. Gough


Recent investigations on the Kenai Peninsula had two major objectives: (1) to establish elemental baseline concentrations ranges for native vegetation and soils; and, (2) to determine the sampling density required for preparing stable regional geochemical maps for various elements in native plants and soils. These objectives were accomplished using an unbalanced, nested analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) barbell sampling design. Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) BSG (feather moss, whole plant), Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce, twigs and needles), and soil horizons (02 and C) were collected and analyzed for major and trace total element concentrations.

Using geometric means and geometric deviations, expected baseline ranges for elements were calculated. Results of the ANOVA show that intensive soil or plant sampling is needed to reliably map the geochemistry of the area, due to large local variability. For example, producing reliable element maps of feather moss using a 50 km cell (at 95% probability) would require sampling densities of from 4 samples per cell for Al, Co, Fe, La, Li, and V, to more than 15 samples per cell for Cu, Pb, Se, and Zn.


Sampling Density Wildlife Refuge Baseline Concentration National Wildlife Refuge Total Element 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. G. Crock
    • 1
  • R. C. Severson
    • 1
  • L. P. Gough
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Geological SurveyDenver Federal CenterDenverUSA

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