Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 361–377 | Cite as

The potential acidity associated with dews, frosts, and fogs

  • Joe Wisniewski


Acidity associated with special meteorological events such as dews, frosts, and fogs may cause significant environmental effects ranging from increased leaching of plant metabolites to material corrosion. In addition, dews, frosts and fogs occur with much greater frequencies than rain or snow in most areas. Due to these facts, a theoretical study was conducted to determine the potential acidity associated with these events.

Results from this study showed the potential acidity associated with these events to be significant. Values of fog pH are extremely sparse, but indicate that they are slightly acidic. However, these experiments have probably under-estimated the actual acidic potential of dew and frost. Theoretical calculations indicate that synergistic acidity from dew or frost in combination with dry deposition may result in very strong localized acidities.


Acidity Leaching Theoretical Calculation Environmental Effect Great Frequency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    National Air Quality, Monitoring and Emissions Trends Report: 1977, U.S. EPA, December 1978.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    McColl, J.: 1980, A Survey ofAcid Precipitation in Northern California, University of California, Department of Soils and Plant Nutrition, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Wisniewski, J. and Keitz, E. L.: 1982, Water, Air, and Soil. Pollut., submitted.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Rosenberrg, N. J.: 1974, Microclimate: The Biological Environment, John Wiley and Sons, New York, N.Y., p. 315.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Monteith, J. L. and Szeicz, G.: 1961, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 87, 159.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Guttman, H.:1968, ‘Effects of Atmospheric Factors on the Corrosion of Rolled Zinc’, in Metal Corrosion in the Atmosphere, ASTM STP 435, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 223–239.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Weast, R. C., ed.: 1969, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, The Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, OH, p. 2033.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Wylie, R. G., Davies, D. K., and Caw, W. A.: 1963, ‘The Basic Process of the Dew-Point Hygrometer’, in Wexler, A. (ed.), International Symposium on Humidity and Moisture, Washington, D.C., pp. 125–134.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    West, F. W.: 1955, ‘Fog, Mist, Dew, and Other Sources of Water’, in U.S. Department of Agriculture, The Yearbook of Agriculture, 1955, Water, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. pp. 103–109.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Wallin, J. R.: 1967, Agricultural Meteor. 4, 85.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Getz, R. R.: 1978, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 59, 1150.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Holzman, B. and Thornthwaite, C. W.: 1942, Measurement of Evaporation from Land and Water Surfaces, Tech. Bull. 817, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Harrold. L. L. and Dreibelbis, F. R.: 1951, Agricultural Hydrology as Evaluated by Monolith Lysimeters, Tech. Bull. 1050, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Shaw, R. H.: 1954, Data from Research Directed Toward the Observation of Dew Deposition on Various Types of Cover, Progress Reports 1–8, U.S. Air Force Contract Number A.F. 19(604)-589, Iowa State College, Ames, IA.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Lloyd, M.G.: 1961, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 4, 572.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Newton, O. H. and Riley, J. A.: 1964, Monthly Weather Review 92, 369.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Marlatt, W. E.: 1971, Agricultural Meteor. 8, 151.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Anderson, D. E.: 1978, Montitoring Acid Precipitation with an Automatic Precipitation Collector and pH Analyzer, M.S. Thesis, Meteorology Program, University of Maryland, College Park, MD., p. 132.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Donn, W. L.: 1975, Meteorology, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, N.Y., p. 518.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Kittredge, J.: 1948, Forest Influences, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, N.Y. p. 390.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Oberlander, G. T.: 1956, Ecology 37, 851.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Means, T. H.: 1927, Science 64, 402.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Stone, R. G.: 1936, The Geographical Review 26, 111.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Court, A. and Gerston, R. D.: 1966, The Geographical Review 56, 543.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Peace, R. L., Jr.: 1969, Monthly Weather Review 97, 116.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Hardwick, W. C.: 1973, Monthly Weather Review 101, 763.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Houghton, H. G.: 1955, J. Meteor. 12, 355.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Mrose, H.: 1966, Tellus 18, 266.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Falconer, R. E. and Farrell, R.: 1977, Measurement of pH in Cloud Water and Precipitation at Whiteface Mountain in the Northeastern Adirondacks of New York State, ASRC Pub. 425, State University of New York, Albany, N.Y.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Castillo, R.: 1979, ‘An Investigation of the Acidity of Stratus Cloud Water and Its Relationship to Droplet Distribution pH of Rain, and Weather Parameters’, PH.D. Thesis, State University of New York, Albany, N.Y.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Falconer, R. E. and Falconer, P. D.: 1979, ‘Determination of Cloud Water Acidity at a Mountain Observatory in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State’, for JGR Proceedings of CACGP Symp. on Trace Gases and Aerosols, p. 25.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Falconer, P. D. and Kadecek, J. A.: 1980, Cloud Chemistry and Meteorological Research at Whiteface Mountain: Summer 1979. ASRC Pub. 748. State University of New York, Albany, N.Y.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Gerhard, J. and Haynie, F. H.: 1974, Air Pollution Effects on Catastrophic Failure of Metals, EPA650/3-74-009, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C., p. 35.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Brimblecombe, P. and Todd, I. J.: 1977, Atmospheric Environment 11, 649.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Lindberg, S. E., Harris, R. C., Turner, R. R., Shriner, D. S., and Huff, D. D.: 1979, Mechanisms and Rates of Selected Trace Elements and Sulfate to a Deciduous Forest Watershed, ORNL/TM-6674, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN., p. 550.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Brimblecombe, P.: 1978, Tellus 30, 151.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Fowler, D. and Unsworth, M. H.: 1974, Nature 249, 389.Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    Fair, D. H., Rhodes, R. C., Evans, E. G., Puzak, J. C., Butler, F. E., Frazer, J. E., and Riley, A.: 1979, Air Quality Data for Nonmetallic Inorganic Ions: NH4+, S04, 1976 from the National Air Surveillance Networks, EPA-600/4-79-041, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C., p. 68.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Sheih, C. M., Wesely, M. L., and Hicks, B. B.: 1979, Estimated Dry Deposition Velocities of Sutrur Over the Eastern United States and Surrounding Regions, ANL/RER-79-2, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, p. 56.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    Galloway, J. N., Likens, G.E., and Edgerton, E.S.: 1976, Water, Air and Soil Pollut. 6, 423.Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    Fairfax, J. A. W. and Lepp, N. W.:1976 ‘The Role ofAcid Rain as a Regulator of Foliar Nutrient Uptake and Loss’, in Dickinson, C. H., and Preece, T. F., (eds.), Microbiology ofAerial Plant Surfaces, Academic Press, Inc., London England, 107–118.Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    Good, G. L. and Tukey, Jr., H. B.: 1966, Proceedings of the American Society ofHorticultural Science 89, 727.Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    Mecklenburg, R. A. and Tukey, Jr., H. B.: 1964, Plant Physiology 39, 533.Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    Mecklenburg, R. A., Tukey, Jr., H. B., and Morgan, J. V.: 1966, Plant Physiology 41, 610.Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    Lee, J. J. and Neely, G. E.: 1980, Sulfuric Acid Rain Effects on Crop Yield and Foliar Injury, EPA600/3-80-016, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR, p. 26.Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    Yocum, J. E. and Upham, J. B.: ‘Effects on Economic Materials and Structures’, in Stern, A. C. (ed.), Air Pollution, II, The Effects of Air Pollution, Academic Press, New York, N.Y., pp. 65–116.Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    Kucera, V.: 1976, Ambio 5, 243.Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    Anderson, E. A.: 1955, ‘The Atmospheric Corrosion of Rolled Zinc’, in Atmospheric Corrosion of Non-Ferrous Metals, ASTM STP 175, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, p. 126.Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    Dunbar, S. R.: 1968, ‘Effect of One Per Cent Copper Addition on the Atmospheric Corrosion of Rolled Zinc’, in Metal Corrosion in the Atmosphere, ASTM STP 435, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 308–325.Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    Fassina, V.: 1978, Atmospheric Environment 12, 2205.Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    Kratzig dunkel, Der Spiegel: 1980, 30 March, 218–222.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joe Wisniewski
    • 1
  1. 1.Flow General Inc. (FGI)McLeanUSA

Personalised recommendations