Zeitschrift für vergleichende Physiologie

, Volume 76, Issue 2, pp 135–145 | Cite as

Photoinhibition of arousal in the stick insect Carausius

  • David Godden
  • Timothy H. Goldsmith


  1. 1.

    The phasmid Carausius assumes a stick posture (thanatosis) during the day but becomes active and feeds at night. Animals placed in darkness during the day start to arouse after a latency of 8–10 minutes, and about half are active after 12 minutes.

  2. 2.

    Light inhibits arousal. A flux of 4×109 hν sec-1 cm−2 at 483 nm increases the latency to the first arousal to about 12 minutes and the half-time to about 26 minutes.

  3. 3.

    The action spectrum for the inhibition of arousal peaks at 510–520 nm. Sensitivity falls gently toward the blue, more steeply to longer wavelengths, and is down 2 log units at 620 nm.

  4. 4.

    Animals with opaque screens on their eyes arouse quickly when placed in dim test lights that inhibit activity in normal controls. Therefore the eyes are the principal receptors.

  5. 5.

    Animals with eyes surgically removed show residual sensitivity to light. Therefore a higher-threshold, extra-optic receptor is also present.

  6. 6.

    Normally the insects integrate intensity over large areas of the visual field, for if they are placed on a reflecting substrate, illumination of the posterior half of the body is as effective in inhibiting arousal as light on the anterior end.



Normal Control Visual Field Action Spectrum Posterior Half Stick Insect 
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  3. Jander, R., Volk-Heinrichs, I.: Das strauch-spezifische visuelle Perceptor-System der Stabheuschrecke (Carausius morosus). Z. vergl. Physiol. 70, 425–447 (1970).Google Scholar
  4. Wald, G.: Single and multiple visual systems in arthropods. J. gen. Physiol. 51, 125–156 (1968).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Godden
    • 1
    • 2
  • Timothy H. Goldsmith
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesStanford UniversityStanford
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyUniversity of BristolBristolUK
  3. 3.Department of BiologyYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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