GeoJournal

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 263–268 | Cite as

The definition and analysis of hallmark tourist events

  • Hall Colin Michael 
Geography of Tourism and Recreation

Abstract

Hallmark tourist events are major fairs, expositions, cultural and sporting events of international status which are held on either a regular or a one-off basis. A primary function of the hallmark event is to provide the host community with an opportunity to secure high prominence in the tourism market place. However, international or regional prominence may be gained with significant social and environmental costs.

Several important features emerge from an examination of the research on hallmark events. First, there is no agreed upon definition of events. Second, major methodological weaknesses emerge in the study of hallmark events. Third, the majority of research is economic in orientation with relatively little attention being paid to the important social and physical impacts of such events.

The paper concludes by noting the general neglect of hallmark tourism events by researchers and the urgent need for further theoretical and empirical studies.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Benedict, B. (ed.): The Anthropology of World Fairs. Scolar Press, London 1983.Google Scholar
  2. Burns, J. P. A.; Mules, T. L.: A Framework for the Analysis of Major Special Events. In: Burns, J. P. A.; Hatch, J. H.; Mules, T. L. (ed.), The Adelaide Grand Prix: The Impact of a Special Event. pp. 5–38. The Centre for South Australian Economic Studies, Adelaide 1986.Google Scholar
  3. Burns, J. P. A.; Hatch, J. H.; Mules, F. J. (ed.): The Adelaide Grand Prix: The Impact of a Special Event. The Centre for South Australian Economic Studies, Adelaide 1986.Google Scholar
  4. Buck, R. C.: Making Good Business Better: A Second Look at Staged Tourist Attractions. Journal of Travel Research 15, 3, 30–32 (1977)Google Scholar
  5. Centre for Applied and Business Research: America's Cup Defence Series, 1986/87, Impact on the Community. Centre for Applied and Business Research, University of Western Australia, Nedlands 1987.Google Scholar
  6. Coppock, J. T.: Tourism as a Tool for Regional Development. In: Duffield, B. S. (ed.), Tourism: A Tool for Regional Development, pp. 1.2–1.15. Tourism and Recreation Research Unit. University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh 1977.Google Scholar
  7. Cowie, I.: Housing Policy Options in Relation to the America's Cup. Urban Policy and Research 3, 40–41 (1985)Google Scholar
  8. Davidson, L. S.; Schaffer, W. A.: A Discussion of Methods Employed in Analysing the Impact of Short-Term Entertainment Events. Journal of Travel Research 18, 3, 12–16 (1980)Google Scholar
  9. Della Betta, A. J.; Loudon, D. L.; Booth, G. G.; Weeks, R. R.: Estimating the Economic Impact of a Short-Term Tourist Event. Journal of Travel Research 16 (Fall), 10–15 (1977)Google Scholar
  10. Duvignaud, J.: Festivals: A Sociological Approach. Cultures 3, 15–25 (1976)Google Scholar
  11. Getz, D.: The Impact of Tourism on Host Communities a Research Approach. In: Duffield, B. S. (ed.), Tourism: A Tool for Regional Development, pp. 9.1–9.13. Tourism and Recreation Research Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh 1977.Google Scholar
  12. Getz, D.: Tourism, Community Organisation and the Social Multiplier. In: Long, J.; Hecock, R. (ed.), Leisure, Tourism and Social Change, pp. 85–100. Centre for Leisure Research, Dunfermline College of Physical Education 1984.Google Scholar
  13. Getz, D.; Frisby, W.: Report on a Survey of Community-Run Festivals in Ontario. Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo 1987a.Google Scholar
  14. Getz, D.; Frisby, W.: Evaluating Management Effectiveness in Community-Run Festivals, submitted to The Journal of Travel Research (1987b)Google Scholar
  15. Hall, C. M.: Expo 86 and Expo 88: Some Comparisons. Paper presented at the World Expo 88 Seminar, School of Management, Queensland Institute of Technology, Brisbane, October, 1988.Google Scholar
  16. Hall, C. M.: Hallmark Tourist Events: Analysis, Definition, Methodology and Review. In: Syme, G. J.; Shaw, B. J.; Fenton, D. M.; Mueller, W. S. (ed.), The Planning and Evaluation of Hallmark Events. Avebury, Aldershot 1989a.Google Scholar
  17. Hall, C. M.: Hallmark Events and the Planning Process. In: Syme, G. J.; Shaw, B. J.; Fenton, D. M.; Mueller, W. S. (ed.), The Planning and Evaluation of Hallmark Events. Avebury, Aldershot 1989b.Google Scholar
  18. Hall, C. M.: The Politics of Hallmark Events. In: Syme, G. J.; Shaw, B. J.; Fenton, D. M.; Mueller, W. S. (ed.), The Planning and Evaluation of Hallmark Events. Avebury, Alderhot 1989c.Google Scholar
  19. Hall, C. M.; Selwood, H. J.: Cup Gained, Paradise Lost? A Case Study of the 1987 America's Cup as a Hallmark Event. In: Le Heron, R.; Roche, M.; Shepherd, M. (ed.), Geography and Society in a Global Context, pp. 267–274. Department of Geography, Massey University, Palmerston North 1987.Google Scholar
  20. Hall, C. M.; Selwood, H. J.: The Political Impact of Hallmark Tourist Events: The Case of the Australian Bicentennial. Paper presented at the Canadian Association of Geographer's Conference, Halifax, June, 1988.Google Scholar
  21. Hall, C. M.; Selwood, H. J.: America's Cup Lost, Paradise Retained? The Dynamics of a Hallmark Tourist Event. In: Syme, G. J.; Shaw, B. J.; Fenton, D. M.; Mueller, W. S. (ed.), The Planning and Evaluation of Hallmark Events. Avebury, Aldershot 1989.Google Scholar
  22. Heenan, D.: Tourism and the Community, A Drama in Three Acts. Journal of Travel Research 16, 4, 30–32 (1978)Google Scholar
  23. Jafari, J.: Tourism Mega-Events. Annals of Tourism Research 15, 2, 272–273 (1988)Google Scholar
  24. Lavenda, R. H.: The Festival of Progress: The Globalizing World-System and the Transformation of the Caracas Carnival. Journal of Popular Culture 14, 3, 465–475 (1980)Google Scholar
  25. Ley, D.; Olds, K.: Landscape as spectacle: world's fairs and the culture of heroic consumption. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 6, 191–212 (1988)Google Scholar
  26. Manning, F. E. (ed.): The Celebration of Society: Perspectives on Contemporary Cultural Performance. Bowling Green University Popular Press, Bowling Green. OH 1983.Google Scholar
  27. Mathieson, A.; Wall, G.: Tourism: economic, physical and social impacts. Longman, London and New York 1982.Google Scholar
  28. Olds, K.: Planning for the Housing Impacts of a Hallmark Event: A Case Study of Expo 86. Unpublished M. A. Thesis, School of Community and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia, Vancouver 1988.Google Scholar
  29. Ritchie, J. B. R.: Assessing the Impact of Hallmark Events: Conceptual and Research Issues. Journal of Travel Research 23, 1, 2–11 (1984)Google Scholar
  30. Ritchie, J. B. R.; Aitken, C. E.: Assessing the Impacts of the 1988 Olympic Winter Games: The Research Program and Initial Results. Journal of Travel Research 22, 3, 17–25 (1984)Google Scholar
  31. Ritchie, J. B. R.; Beliveau, D.: Hallmark Events: An Evaluation of a Strategic Response to Seasonality in the Travel Market. Journal of Travel Research 14 (Fall), 14–20 (1974)Google Scholar
  32. Ritchie, J. B. R.; Yangzhou, H.: The Role and Impact of Mega-Events and Attractions on National and Regional Tourism: A Conceptual and Methodological Overview. Paper prepared for presentation at the 37th Annual Congress of the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism (AIEST), Calgary, Canada, August, 1987.Google Scholar
  33. Rydel, R. W.: All the World's a Fair. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1984.Google Scholar
  34. Shaw, B. J.: Fremantle and the America's Cup ... the Spectre of Development? Urban Policy and Research 3, 38–40 (1985)Google Scholar
  35. Shaw, B. J.: Fremantle W. A. and the America's Cup The Impact of a Hallmark Event. Australian Studies Centre, University of London 1986.Google Scholar
  36. Shephard, D.: Community organisations and hallmark events, a case study of the Wellesley Apple Butter and Cheese Festival. Unpublished undergraduate honours research project. Waterloo: Department of Recreation, University of Waterloo, Waterloo 1982.Google Scholar
  37. Siracusa, J.: Brisbane Grabs at the '92 games. Times on Sunday, 21 September, 6 (1986)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hall Colin Michael 
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geography and PlanningUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia

Personalised recommendations