This article demonstrates the efficacy of endoscopic techniques in total facial rejuvenation. The author has introduced the total subperiosteal dissection to the endoscopic forehead lift. This concept has been extended to the rejuvenation of the central and lower third of the face. Patients up to the late 40s can have a total facelift without skin excisions. In older patients, the introduction of endoscopic techniques helps to minimize some of the undesirable sequelae of the traditional open procedures such as alopecia, scalp paresthesias, and facial edema of the subperiosteal lift. The author also introduces a new, more efficacious method of midface suspension.
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Ramirez, O.M. Endoscopic full facelift. Aesth. Plast. Surg. 18, 363–371 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00451341
- Forehead lift