Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 123–149 | Cite as

Collision-avoidance for redundant robots through control of the self-motion of the manipulator

  • N. Rahmanian-Shahri
  • I. Troch


A new method to on-line collision-avoidance of the links of redundant robots with obstacles is presented. The method allows the use of redundant degrees of freedom such that a manipulator can avoid obstacles while tracking the desired end-effector trajectory. It is supposed that the obstacles in the workspace of the manipulator are presented by convex polygons. The recognition of collisions of the links of the manipulator with obstacles results on-line through a nonsensory method. For every link of the redundant manipulator and every obstacle a boundary ellipse is defined in workspace such that there is no collision if the robot joints are outside these ellipses. In case a collision is imminent, the collision-avoidance algorithm compute the self-motion movements necessary to avoid the collision. The method is based on coordinate transformation and inverse kinematics and leads to the favorable use of the abilities of redundant robots to avoid the collisions with obstacles while tracking the end-effector trajectory. This method has the advantage that the configuration of the manipulator after collision-avoidance can be influenced by further requirements such as avoidance of singularities, joint limits, etc. The effectiveness of the proposed method is discussed by theoretical considerations and illustrated by simulation of the motion of three-and four-link planar manipulators between obstacles.

Key words

Redundant robots collision-recognition inverse kinematics collision-avoidance 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Lozano-Perez, T.: Automatic planning of manipulator transfer movements,IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics SMC-11 (1981), 681–698.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lumelsky, V. J.: Effect of kinematics on motion planning for planar robot arms moving admist unknown obstacles,IEEE J. Robot. Automat. RA-3 (1987), 207–223.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Freund, E. and Hoyer, H.: Collision avoidance for industrial robots with arbitrary motion,J. Robot. Systems 1 (1984), 317–329.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gilbert, E. G. and Johnson, D. W.: Distance functions and their application to robot path planning in the presence of obstacles,IEEE J. Robot. Automat. RA-1 (1985), 21–29.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Klein, C. and Huang, C.: Review of pseudoinverse control for use with kinematically redundant manipulators,IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics SMC-13(3) (1983).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Maciejewski, A. A. and Klein, C. A.: Obstacle avoidance for kinematically redundant manipulators in dynamically varying environments,Int. J. Robot. Res. 4 (1985), 109–117.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nakamura, Y., Hanafusa, H. H., and Yoshikawa, T.: Task-priority based redundancy control of robot manipulators,Int. J. Robot. Res. 6 (1987), 3–15.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kircanski, M. and Vukobratovic, M.: Contribution to control of redundant robotic manipulators in an environment with obstacles,Int. J. Robot. Res. 5 (1986), 112–119.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lovass-Nagy, V. and Schilling, R.: Control of kinematically redundant robots using 1-inverses,IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics SMC-17(4) (1987), 644–649.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Walker, I. and Marcus, S.: Subtask performance for redundancy resolution for redundant robot manipulators,IEEE J. Robot. Automat. 4 (1988), 350–354.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Anthimopoulou, M. and Aspragathos, N.: Kinematic control of planar redundant manipulators moving between obstacles, inAdvances in Robot Kinematics, Springer-Verlag, 1990, pp. 375–391.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baillieul, J.: Avoiding obstacles and resolving kinematic redundancy, inProc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Automat., San Francisco, CA, April 1986, pp. 1698–1704.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen, Y. and Vidyasagar, M.: Optimal control of robotic manipulators in the presence of obstacles,J. Robot. Systems 7(5) (1990), 721–740.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Oh, S., Orin, D., and Bach, M.: An inverse kinematic solution for kinematically redundant robot manipulators,J. Robot. Systems 1 (1987), 235–249.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sciavicco, L. and Siciliano, B.: A solution algorithm to the inverse kinematic problem for redundant manipulators,IEEE J. Robot. Automat. 4 (1988), 403–410.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Das, H., Slotine, J-J., and Sheridan, T.: Inverse kinematic algorithms for redundant systems, inProc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Automat., Philadelphia, PA, April 1988, pp. 43–48.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Khatib, O.: Real-time obstacle avoidance for manipulators and mobile robots,Int. J. Robot. Res. 5 (1986), 90–98.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Colbaugh, R., Seraji, H., and Glass, K. L.: Obstacle avoidance for redundant robots using configuration control,J. Robot. Systems 6(6) (1989), 721–744.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bagchi, A. and Hatwal, H.: Fuzzy logic-based techniques for motion planning of a robot manipulator amongst unknown moving obstacles,Robotica 10 (1992), 563–573.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rahmanian-Shahri, N.: Steuerungsalgorithmen zur Vermeidung von Kollisionen der Glieder redundanter Roboter mit Hindernissen, Dissertation, Technical University Vienna, 1993.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rahmanian-Shahri, N. and Troch, I.: Collision-avoidance control for redundant articulated robots,Robotica 13 (1995), 159–168.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Rahmanian-Shahri
    • 1
  • I. Troch
    • 1
  1. 1.Technical University ViennaWienAustria

Personalised recommendations