Advertisement

Energy cost of arm stroke, leg kick, and the whole stroke in competitive swimming styles

  • Ingauvar Holmér
Article

Abstract

In male elite swimmers \(\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) at a given velocity in freestyle and backstroke was on average 1 to 2 l x min−1 lower as compared with breaststroke and butterfly. Except for breaststroke, swimming with arm strokes only demanded a lower \(\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) at a given submaximal velocity than the whole stroke. In freestyle and backstroke the submaximal \(\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) of leg kick at a given velocity was clearly higher than the whole stroke. The highest velocity during maximal swimming was always attained with the whole stroke, and the lowest with the leg kick, except for breast stroke, where the leg kick was most powerful. At a given submaximal \(\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \), heart rate and \(\dot V_{\text{E}} :\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) tended to be higher during swimming with arm strokes only as compared with the whole stroke. Highest values for \(\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \), heart rate and blood lactate during maximal exercise were almost always attained when swimming the whole stroke, and lowest when swimming with arm strokes only. At higher velocities body drag was 0.5 to 0.9 kp lower when arms or legs were supported by a cork plate as compared with body drag without support.

Key words

Oxygen Uptake Pulmonary Ventilation Heart Rate Drag Submaximal and Maximal Work 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Adrian, M. J., Singh, M., Karpovich, P. V.: Energy cost of leg kick, arm stroke, and the whole crawl stroke. J. appl. Physiol. 21 (6), 1763–1766 (1966)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alley, L. E.: An analysis of water resistance and propulsion in swimming the crawl stroke. Res. Quart. 23, 257–270 (1952)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Åstrand, P.-0., Englesson, S.: A swimming flume. J. appl. Physiol. 33 (4), 514 (1972)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Åstrand, P.-0., Engström, L., Eriksson, B., Karlberg, P., Nylander, I., Saltin, B., Thorén, C: Girl swimmers. Acta paediat. (Uppsala) Suppl. 147, 43–63 (1963)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dixon, R. W., Faulkner, J. A.: Cardiac outputs during maximum effort running and swimming. J. appl. Physiol. 30 (5), 653–656 (1971)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Frederiksen, R.: Om svømningens fysiologi. T. Legemsøvelser 10, 49–54 (1945)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goodwin, A. B., Cumming, G. R.: Radio telemetry of the electrocardiogram, fitness tests, and oxygen uptake of water polo players. Canad. med. Ass. J. 27, 402–406 (1966)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hemmingsen, I.: Energiomsaettningen under svømning hos maend og kvinder. T. Legemsøvelser 22, 53–62 (1957)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Holmér, I.: Oxygen uptake during swimming in man. J. appl. Physiol. 33 (4), 502–509 (1972)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Holmér, I.: Physiology of swimming man. Acta physiol. scand. Suppl. 407 (1974)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Holmér, I.: Propulsive efficiency of breaststroke and freestyle swimming. Europ. J. appl. Physiol. 33, 95–103 (1974)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Holmér, I., Åstrand, P.-O.: Swimming training and maximal oxygen uptake. J. appl. Physiol. 33 (4) 510–513 (1972)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Holmér, I., Lundin, A., Eriksson, B. O.: Maximal oxygen uptake during swimming and running by elite swimmers. J. appl. Physiol. (in press, 1974)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Karpovich, P. V., Millman, N.: Energy expenditure in swimming. Amer. J. Physiol. 142, 140–144 (1944)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Klissouras, V.: Energy metabolism in swimming the dolphin stroke. Int. Z. angew. Physiol. 25, 142–150 (1968)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Magel, J. R.: Propelling force measured during tethered swimming in the four competitive swimming styles. Res. Quart. 41, 68–74 (1970)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Magel, J. R., Faulkner, J. A.: Maximum oxygen uptake of college swimmers. J. appl. Physiol. 22 (5), 929–938 (1967)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nadel, E. R., Holmér, I., Bergh, U., Åstrand, P.-O., Stolwijk, J. A. J.: Energy exchanges of swimming man. J. appl. Physiol. 36, 465–471 (1974)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    di Prampero, P. E., Pendergast, D. R., Wilson, D. W., Rennie, D. W.: Energetics of swimming in man. J. appl. Physiol. (in press, 1974)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rennie, D. W., di Prampero, P., Wilson, D. R., Pendergast, D. R.: Energetics of swimming the crawl stroke. Fed. Proc. 32 (3), 1125 Abs. (1973)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stenberg, J., Åstrand, P.-O., Ekblom, B., Royce, J., Saltin, B.: Hemodynamic response to work with different muscle groups, sitting and supine. J. appl. Physiol. 22 (1), 61–70 (1967)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ström, G.: The influence of anoxia on lactate utilization in man after prolonged muscular work. Acta physiol. scand. 17, 330–451 (1949)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ingauvar Holmér
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology, Gymnastik-och idrottshögskolan, and Work Physiology DivisionNational Board of Occupational Safety and HealthStockholm

Personalised recommendations