Advertisement

Planta

, Volume 167, Issue 1, pp 146–151 | Cite as

Leaf senescence in a non-yellowing mutant of Festuca pratensis: Photosynthesis and photosynthetic electron transport

  • P. Hilditch
  • H. Thomas
  • L. Rogers
Article

Abstract

The photosynthetic capacity of detached leaves of a non-yellowing mutant of Festuca pratensis Huds. declined during senescence at a similar rate to that in a normal cultivar. Respiratory oxygen uptake in the dark continued at similar rates in both genotypes during several days of senescence. In chloroplasts isolated from leaves at intervals after excision, the rate of photosystem I (PS I)-mediated methyl viologen reduction using reduced N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-p-phenylene diamine as electron donor also declined in both genotypes, possibly due to loss of integrity of the photosynthetic apparatus in the cytochrome f-plastocyanin region. There was a similar fall in PS II electron transport using water as electron donor and measured at the rate of reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol. Partial restoration of this activity by the addition of diphenyl carbazide was evidence for lability of the oxygen-evolving complex during senescence. An accentuated difference between mutant and normal material in this case indicated that the mutant retains a greater number of functional PS II centres. Changes in the light-saturation characteristics of the two photosystems have been discussed in relation to the organization of the photosynthetic membranes during senescence.

Key words

Festuca Leaf senescence Mutant (FestucaPhotosynthesis and senescence Senescence (leaf) 

Abbreviations and symbols

DCMU

3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea

DCPIP

2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol

DMSO

dimethyl sulphoxide

DPC

diphenyl carbazide

MV

methyl viologen

PS I, PS II

photosystem I, II

TMPD

N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-p-phenylene diamine

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Delieu, T., Walker, D.A. (1981) Polarographic measurement of photosynthetic oxygen evolution by leaf discs. New Phytol. 89, 165–178Google Scholar
  2. Haehnel, W. (1984) Photosynthetic electron transport in higher plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 35, 659–693Google Scholar
  3. Harwood, J.L., Jones, A.V.H.M., Thomas, H. (1982) Leaf senescence in a non-yellowing mutant of Festuca pratensis. III. Total acyl lipids of leaf tissue during senescence. Planta 156, 152–157Google Scholar
  4. Izawa, S. (1980) Acceptors and donors for chloroplast electron transport. Methods Enzymol. 69, 413–434Google Scholar
  5. Jenkins, G.I., Baker, N.R., Woolhouse, H.W. (1981) Changes in chlorophyll content and organization during senescence of the primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. in relation to photosynthetic electron transport. J. Exp. Bot. 32, 1009–1020Google Scholar
  6. Jenkins, G.I., Woolhouse, H.W. (1981a) Photosynthetic electron transport during senescence of the primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. I. Non-cyclic electron transport. J. Exp. Bot. 32, 467–478Google Scholar
  7. Jenkins, G.I., Woolhouse, H.W. (1981b) Photosynthetic electron transport during senescence of the primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. II. The activity of photosystem one and two, and note on the site of reduction of ferricyanide. J. Exp. Bot. 32, 989–997Google Scholar
  8. Kar, M., Feierabend, J. (1984) Changes in the activities of enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism during the senescence of detached wheat leaves. Physiol. Plant. 62, 39–44Google Scholar
  9. Ljungberg, U., Akerlund, H.-E., Larsson, C., Andersson, B. (1984) Identification of polypeptides associated with the 23 and 33 kDa proteins of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 76, 145–152Google Scholar
  10. Misra, A.N., Biswal, U.C. (1982) Differential changes in the electron transport properties of thylakoid membranes during aging of attached and detached leaves, and of isolated chloroplasts. Plant Cell Environ. 5, 27–30Google Scholar
  11. Panigrahi, P.K., Biswal, U.C. (1979) Ageing of chloroplasts in vitro. II. Changes in absorption spectra and the DCPIP Hill reaction. Plant Cell Physiol. 20, 781–787Google Scholar
  12. Pearson, J.A., Thomas, K., Thomas, H. (1978) Nucleic acids from leaves of a yellowing and a non-yellowing variety of Festuca pratensis Huds. Planta 144, 85–87Google Scholar
  13. Sestak, Z. (1977) Photosynthetic characteristics during ontogenesis of leaves. 1. Chlorophylls. Photosynthetica 11, 367–448Google Scholar
  14. Strain, H.H., Cope, B.T., Svec, W.A. (1971) Analytical procedures for the isolation, identification, estimation and investigation of the chlorophylls. Methods Enzymol. 23, 452–476Google Scholar
  15. Tetley, R.M., Thimann, K.V. (1974) The metabolism of oat leaves during senescence. I. Respiration, carbohydrate metabolism, and the action of cytokinins. Plant Physiol. 54, 294–303Google Scholar
  16. Thimann, K.V., Satler, S.O., Trippi, V. (1982) Further extension of the syndrome of senescence. In: Plant growth substances 1982, pp. 539–548, Wareing, P.F., ed. Academic Press, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Thomas, H. (1977) Ultrastructure, polypeptide composition and photochemical activity of chloroplasts during foliar senescence of a non-yellowing mutant genotype of Festuca pratensis Huds. Planta 137, 53–60Google Scholar
  18. Thomas, H. (1978) Enzymes of nitrogen mobilization in detached leaves of Lolium temulentum during senescence. Planta 142, 161–169Google Scholar
  19. Thomas, H. (1982a) Leaf senescence in a non-yellowing mutant of Festuca pratensis. I. Chloroplast membrane polypeptides. Planta 154, 212–218Google Scholar
  20. Thomas, H. (1982b) Leaf senescence in a non-yellowing mutant of Festuca pratensis. II. Proteolytic degradation of thylakoid and stroma polypeptides. Planta 154, 219–223Google Scholar
  21. Thomas, H., Stoddart, J.L. (1975) Separation of chlorophyll degradation from other senescence processes in leaves of a mutant genotype of meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis L.). Plant Physiol. 56, 438–441Google Scholar
  22. Trebst, A. (1972) Measurement of Hill reactions and photoreduction. Methods Enzymol. 24, 146–165Google Scholar
  23. Velthuys, B.R. (1980) Mechanisms of electron flow in photosystem II and toward photosystem I. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 31, 545–567Google Scholar
  24. Vernon, L.P., Shaw, E.R. (1969) Photoreduction of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol by diphenylcarbazide: a photosystem 2 reaction catalyzed by Tris-washed chloroplasts and subchloroplast fragments. Plant Physiol. 44, 1645–1649Google Scholar
  25. Woolhouse, H.W. (1967) The nature of senescence in plants. In: Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. XXI: Aspects of the biology of ageing, pp. 179–214, Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Hilditch
    • 1
    • 2
  • H. Thomas
    • 1
  • L. Rogers
    • 2
  1. 1.Plant Biochemistry DepartmentWelsh Plant Breeding StationAberystwyth
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and Agricultural BiochemistryUniversity College of WalesAberystwythUK

Personalised recommendations