Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

, Volume 51, Issue 1, pp 33–43 | Cite as

Biogenesis and metabolic significance of microbodies in urate-utilizing yeasts

  • M. Veenhuis
  • M. C. Hoogkamer-Te Niet
  • W. J. Middelhoven
Physiology and Growth

Abstract

Growth of Candida famata and Trichosporon cutaneum on uric acid as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen was associated with the development of a number of microbodies in the cells. Cytochemical staining experiments showed that the organelles contained urate oxidase, a key enzyme of uric acid metabolism, and catalase. Transfer of cells, precultured on glucose or glycerol, into uric acid-containing media indicated that these microbodies originated from the organelles, originally present in the inoculum cells, by growth and division. In urate-grown C. famata the microbodies were frequently observed in large clusters; in both organisms they existed in close association with mitochondria and strands of ER. The organelles lacked crystalline inclusions. In freeze-fractured cells their surrounding membranes showed smooth fracture faces.

Exposure of urate-grown cells to glucose-excess conditions led to a rapid inactivation of urate oxidase activity but catalase was only slightly inactivated. Glucose-induced enzyme inactivation was not associated with the degradation of the microbodies present in the cells. Similarly, repression of urate oxidase synthesis by ammonium ions also did not lead to the degradation of peroxisomes.

Keywords

Uric Acid Catalase Sole Source Enzyme Inactivation Metabolic Significance 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. De Duve, C. and Baudhuin, P. 1966. Peroxisomes (microbodies and related particles). — Physiol. Rev. 46: 323–357.Google Scholar
  2. Fukui, S. and Tanaka, A. 1979. Peroxisomes of alkane- and methanol-grown yeasts. Metabolic functions and practical applications. — J. Appl. Biochem. 1: 171–201.Google Scholar
  3. Goldman, B. M. and Blobel, G. 1978. Biogenesis of peroxisomes: intracellular site of synthesis of catalase and uricase. — Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 75: 5066–5070.Google Scholar
  4. Hoffmann, H.-P., Szabo, A. and Avers, C. J. 1970. Cytochemical localization of catalase activity in yeast peroxisomes. — J. Bacteriol. 104: 581–584.Google Scholar
  5. LaRue, T. A. and Spencer, J. F. T. 1968. The utilization of purines and pyrimidines by yeasts. — Can. J. Microbiol. 14: 79–86.Google Scholar
  6. Middelhoven, W. J. 1977. Isolation and characterization of methylammonium-resistant mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with relieved nitrogen metabolite repression of allantoinase, arginase and ornithine transaminase synthesis. — J. Gen. Microbiol. 100: 257–269.Google Scholar
  7. Middelhoven, W. J., Van den Brink, J. A. and Veenhuis, M. 1983. Growth of Candida famata and Trichosporon cutaneum on uric acid as the sole source of carbon and energy, a hitherto unknown property of yeasts. — Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 49: 361–368.Google Scholar
  8. Moor, H. 1964. Die Gefrier-Fixation lebender Zellen und ihre Anwendung in die Elektronen-Mikroskopie. — Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat. 62: 546–580.Google Scholar
  9. Switzer, R. L. 1977. The inactivation of microbial enzymes in vivo. — Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 31: 135–157.Google Scholar
  10. Van Dijken, J. P., Veenhuis, M., Vermeulen, C. A. and Harder, W. 1975. Cytochemical localization of catalase activity in methanol-grown Hansenula polymorpha. — Arch. Microbiol. 105: 261–267.Google Scholar
  11. Veenhuis, M., Douma, A., Harder, W. and Osumi, M. 1983a. Degradation and turnover of peroxisomes in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha induced by selective inactivation of peroxisomal enzymes. — Arch. Microbiol. 134: 193–203.Google Scholar
  12. Veenhuis, M. and Harder, W. 1985. Yeast microbodies. Their substructure, biogenesis and turnover in relation to environmental conditions. In A. H., Rose (ed.), The Yeasts, Vol. 2 — Academic Press, London, in press.Google Scholar
  13. Veenhuis, M., Keizer, I. and Harder, W. 1979. Characterization of peroxisomes in glucose-grown Hansenula polymorpha and their development after the transfer of cells into methanol-containing media. — Arch. Microbiol. 120: 167–175.Google Scholar
  14. Veenhuis, M., Van Dujken, J. P. and Harder, W. 1976. Cytochemical studies on the localization of methanol oxidase and other oxidases in peroxisomes of methanol-grown Hansenula polymorpha. — Arch. Microbiol. 111: 123–135.Google Scholar
  15. Veenhuis, M., Van Dijken, J. P. and Harder, W. 1983b. The significance of peroxisomes in the metabolism of one-carbon compounds in yeasts. — Adv. Microb. Physiol. 24: 1–82.Google Scholar
  16. Veenhuis, M., Zwart, K. B. and Harder, W. 1981. Biogenesis and turnover of peroxisomes involved in the concurrent oxidation of methanol and methylamine in Hansenula polymorpha. —Arch. Microbiol. 129: 35–41.Google Scholar
  17. Vogels, G. D. and Van der Drift, C. 1976. Degradation of purines and pyrimidines by microorganisms. — Bacteriol. Rev. 40: 403–468.Google Scholar
  18. Zwart, K. B. 1983. Metabolic significance of microbodies in the yeasts Candida utilis and Hansenula polymorpha. — Ph.D. Thesis, University of Groningen.Google Scholar
  19. Zwart, K. B., Overmars, E. H. and Harder, W. 1983a. The role of peroxisomes in the metabolism of D-alanine in the yeast Candida utilis. — FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 19: 225–231.Google Scholar
  20. Zwart, K. B., Veenhuis, M. and Harder, W. 1983b. Significance of microbodies in the metabolism of L-aspartate in Candida utilis. — FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 19: 273–279.Google Scholar
  21. Zwart, K. B., Veenhuis, M., Plat, G. and Harder, W. 1983c. Characterization of glyoxysomes in yeasts and their transformation into peroxisomes in response to changes in environmental conditions. — Arch. Microbiol. 136: 28–38.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Drukkerij Veenman B.V. 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Veenhuis
    • 1
  • M. C. Hoogkamer-Te Niet
    • 2
  • W. J. Middelhoven
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, Biological CentreUniversity of GroningenHarenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyAgricultural UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations