Meccanica

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 103–116 | Cite as

Rainstorm statistics conditional on soil moisture index: Temporal and spatial characteristics

  • Enrica Caporali
  • Dara Entekhabi
  • Fabio Castelli
Article

Abstract

Soil moisture is the primary hydrological state variable that controls and it is controlled by land surface processes. Assessment of feedback mechanisms between land surface and the atmosphere must involve soil moisture. The Midwestern region of the United States is used as a case example in the preliminary investigations on the hypothesis that the structure and development of storm events are influenced by soil moisture conditions. In particular we deal with the antecedent soil moisture condition influence on storm precipitation amounts and interstorm durations. The analysis based on observations indicates that when the soil moisture is low, the ensuing interstorm duration and drying period is anomalously long. We also show that storm precipitation amounts are larger when the antecedent soil moisture is anomalously high. This finding supports the hypotheses that the Summer 1993 floods over Midwestern United States were partially forced by moist antecedent conditions.

Key words

Rainfall Soil moisture Antecedent precipitation index Hydrometeorology 

Sommario

L'umidità del suolo è la variabile idrological di stato primaria che controlla ed è a sua volta controllata dai processi sulla superficie del terreno. La quantificazione dei meccanismi di retroazione fra superficie del terreno ed atmosfera deve comprendere l'umidità del suolo. La regione centro-occidentale degli Stati Uniti è usata come esempio in uno studio preliminare sull'ipotesi che la struttura e lo sviluppo di eventi di precipitazione siano influenzati dalle condizioni di umidità del suolo. In particolare, viene considerata l'influenza delle condizioni antecedenti di umidità del suolo sulle quantità di precipitazione e gli intervallamenti dei vari eventi. Le analisi basate sulle osservazioni indicano, che quando l'umidità del suolo è bassa, il periodo secco di attesa della pioggia successiva è più lungo del normale. Viene anche mostrato che le quantità di precipitazione sono maggiori quando l'umidità del suolo nel periodo antecedente è più alta del normale. Questo risultato supporta l'ipotesi secondo la quale le alluvioni dell' estate del 1993 negli Stati Uniti centro-occidentali furono parzialmente causate dalle condizioni antecedenti di umidità del suolo.

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Enrica Caporali
    • 1
  • Dara Entekhabi
    • 2
  • Fabio Castelli
    • 3
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Ingegneria CivileUniversità di FirenzeFirenzeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  3. 3.Istituto di IdraulicaUniversità di PerugiaPerugiaItaly

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