Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 205–220 | Cite as

Effects of Pichia kluyveri killer toxin on sensitive cells

  • E. J. Middelbeek
  • C. Stumm
  • G. D. Vogels
Physiology and Growth


The killer toxin produced by Pichia kluyveri 1002 kills yeast strains of the genera Candida, Saccharomyces and Torulopsis, including several S. cerevisiae killer strains.

Binding of a lethal amount of the toxin to cells of S. cerevisiae SCF 1717 occurs rapidly after toxin addition. After treatment with the toxin for 10 min sensitive cells partially recovered when incubated under conditions that favor protein synthesis. Only after a lag time of 50–90 min sensitive cells changed physiologically. Killing of sensitive cells was characterized by leakage of potassium and adenosine 5′-triphosphate, decrease of intracellular pH, and inhibition of the active uptake of amino acids. These effects coincided with cell shrinkage and varied with incubation conditions.

Uptake of the amino acid leucine in sensitive cells involved two apparently distinct transport systems (Km1=0.04mm; Km2=0.46mm). The toxin showed different effects on these transport systems.


Adenosine Leucine Triphosphate Transport System Yeast Strain 
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Copyright information

© H. Veenman & Zonen B.V. 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. J. Middelbeek
    • 1
  • C. Stumm
    • 1
  • G. D. Vogels
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Microbiology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of NijmegenNijmegenThe Netherlands

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