Advertisement

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 205–220 | Cite as

Effects of Pichia kluyveri killer toxin on sensitive cells

  • E. J. Middelbeek
  • C. Stumm
  • G. D. Vogels
Physiology and Growth

Abstract

The killer toxin produced by Pichia kluyveri 1002 kills yeast strains of the genera Candida, Saccharomyces and Torulopsis, including several S. cerevisiae killer strains.

Binding of a lethal amount of the toxin to cells of S. cerevisiae SCF 1717 occurs rapidly after toxin addition. After treatment with the toxin for 10 min sensitive cells partially recovered when incubated under conditions that favor protein synthesis. Only after a lag time of 50–90 min sensitive cells changed physiologically. Killing of sensitive cells was characterized by leakage of potassium and adenosine 5′-triphosphate, decrease of intracellular pH, and inhibition of the active uptake of amino acids. These effects coincided with cell shrinkage and varied with incubation conditions.

Uptake of the amino acid leucine in sensitive cells involved two apparently distinct transport systems (Km1=0.04mm; Km2=0.46mm). The toxin showed different effects on these transport systems.

Keywords

Adenosine Leucine Triphosphate Transport System Yeast Strain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aiking, H. 1977. Involvement of potassium in the physiology of Candida utilis: a continuous culture study. — Thesis, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Aidroos, K. and Bussey, H. 1978. Chromosomal mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affecting the cell wall binding site for killer factor. — Can. J. Microbiol. 24: 228–237.Google Scholar
  3. Borst-Pauwels, G. W. F. H. and Dobbelmann, J. 1972. Determination of the yeast cell pH. — Acta Bot. Neerl. 21: 149–154.Google Scholar
  4. Borst-Pauwels, G. W. F. H. and Peters, P. H. J. 1977. Effect of the medium pH and the cell pH upon the kinetical parameters of phosphate uptake by yeast. — Biochim. Biophys. Acta 466: 488–495.Google Scholar
  5. Bussey, H. 1972. Effects of yeast killer factor on sensitive cells. — Nature New Biol. 235: 73–75.Google Scholar
  6. Bussey, H. 1974. Yeast killer factor-induced turbidity changes in cells and sphaeroplasts of a sensitive strain. — J. Gen. Microbiol. 82: 171–179.Google Scholar
  7. Bussey, H. and Sherman, D. 1973. Yeast killer factor: ATP leakage and coordinate inhibition of macromolecular synthesis in sensitive cells. — Biochim. Biophys. Acta 298: 868–875.Google Scholar
  8. Bussey, H., Sherman, D. and Somers, J. M. 1973. Action of yeast killer factor: a resistant mutant with sensitive spheroplasts. — J. Bacteriol. 113: 1193–1197.Google Scholar
  9. Bussey, H. and Skipper, N. 1975. Membrane-mediated killing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by glycoproteins from Torulopsis glabrata. — J. Bacteriol. 124: 476–483.Google Scholar
  10. Chapman, A. G., Fall, L. and Atkinson, D. E. 1971. Adenylate energy charge in Escherichia coli during growth and starvation. — J. Bacteriol. 108: 1072–1086.Google Scholar
  11. Cockburn, M., Earnshaw, P. and Eddy, A. A. 1975. The stoicheiometry of the absorption of protons with phosphate and l-glutamate by yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces. — Biochem. J. 146: 705–712.Google Scholar
  12. Deak, T. 1978. On the existence of H+-symport in yeasts. — Arch. Microbiol. 116: 205–211.Google Scholar
  13. Eddy, A. A., Backen, K. and Watson, G. 1970. The concentration of amino acids by yeast cells depleted of adenosine triphosphate. — Biochem. J. 120: 853–858.Google Scholar
  14. Fink, G. R. and Styles, C. A. 1972. Curing of a killer factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. — Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 69: 2846–2849.Google Scholar
  15. Höfer, M. and Misra, P. C. 1978. Evidence for a proton/sugar symport in the yeast Rhodotorula gracilis (glutinis). — Biochem. J. 172: 15–22.Google Scholar
  16. Imamura, T., Kawamoto, M. and Takaoka, Y. 1975. Binding of the killer factor to saké yeast cells. — J. Ferment. Technol. 53: 417–423.Google Scholar
  17. Kotani, H., Shinmyo, A. and Enatsu, T. 1977. Killer toxin for sake yeast: Properties and effects of adenosine 5′-diphosphate and calcium ion on killing action. — J. Bacteriol. 129: 640–650.Google Scholar
  18. Middelbeek, E. J., Hermans, J. M. H. and Stumm, C. 1979. Production, purification and properties of a Pichia kluyveri killer toxin. — Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 45: 437–450.Google Scholar
  19. Niedermeyer, W., Parish, G. R. and Moor, H. 1977. Reactions of yeast cells to glycerol treatment: Alterations to membrane structure and glycerol uptake. — Protoplasma 92: 177–193.Google Scholar
  20. Palacios, J. and Serrano, R. 1978. Proton permeability induced by polyene antibiotics. — FEBS Lett. 91: 198–201.Google Scholar
  21. Philliskirk, G. and Young, T. W. 1975. The occurrence of killer character in yeasts of various genera. — Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 41: 147–151.Google Scholar
  22. Ramos, E. H., de Bongioanni, L. C., Cuesta Casado, M. C. and Stoppani, A. O. M. 1977. Some properties of l-(14C) leucine transport in Saccharomyces ellipsoideus. — Biochim. Biophys. Acta 467: 220–237.Google Scholar
  23. Rogers, D. and Bevan, E. A. 1978. Group classification of killer yeasts based on cross-reactions between strains of different species and origin. — J. Gen. Microbiol. 105: 199–202.Google Scholar
  24. Rothstein, A. 1974. Relationship of cation influexes and effluxes in yeasts. — J. Gen. Physiol. 64: 608–621.Google Scholar
  25. Seaston, A., Carr, G. and Eddy, A. A. 1976. The concentration of glycine by preparations of the yeast Saccharomyces carlsbergensis depleted of adenosine triphosphate. — Biochem. J. 154: 669–676.Google Scholar
  26. Skipper, N. and Bussey, H. 1977. Mode of action of yeast toxins: Energy requirement for Saccharomyces cerevisiae killer toxin. — J. Bacteriol. 129: 668–677.Google Scholar
  27. Somers, J. M. 1973. Isolation of suppressive sensitive mutants from killer and neutral strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. — Genetics 74: 571–579.Google Scholar
  28. Somers, J. M. and Bevan, E. A. 1969. The inheritance of the killer character in yeasts. — Genet. Res. 13: 71–83.Google Scholar
  29. Stumm, C., Hermans, J. M. H., Middelbeek, E. J., Croes, A. F. and De Vries, G. J. M. L. 1977. Killer-sensitive relationships in yeasts from natural habitats. — Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 43: 125–128.Google Scholar
  30. Theuvenet, A. P. R., Roomans, G. M. and Borst-Pauwels, G. W. F. H. 1977. Intracellular pH and the kinetics of Rb+ uptake by yeasts non-carrier versus mobile carrier-mediated uptake. —Biochim. Biophys. Acta 469: 272–280.Google Scholar
  31. Young, T. W. and Yagiu, M. 1978. A comparison of the killer character in different yeasts and its classification. — Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 44: 59–77.Google Scholar
  32. Weerkamp, A. H. 1977. Bacteriocins of staphylococci and oral streptococci. — Thesis, Nijmegen.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© H. Veenman & Zonen B.V. 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. J. Middelbeek
    • 1
  • C. Stumm
    • 1
  • G. D. Vogels
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Microbiology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of NijmegenNijmegenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations