Polar Biology

, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp 193–197 | Cite as

Grazing of Euphausia superba Dana on natural phytoplankton populations

  • M. A. Meyer
  • S. Z. El-Sayed
Article

Summary

Selective feeding by Euphausia superba (krill) has been suggested from stomach content analysis (Nemoto 1971/1972) and from the comparison of krill and phytoplankton species distribution (Kawamura 1981). Laboratory experiments can help determine whether krill selectively graze certain phytoplankton species. Grazing experiments were conducted at Palmer Station, Antarctica, during the austral summer 1977/1978. krill, collected from waters surrounding the Antarctic Penninsula, were maintained in flow-thru aquaria at Palmer Station. E. superba were added to glass bottles (4.48 1), containing 220 μm mesh filtered sea water. Bottles, with and without krill, were incubated in the dark at sea surface temperature, for two to twenty-seven hours. End point determinations were made for phytoplankton cell number. The cell counts were divided into size and species categories, and the calculated filtering rates were compared through analysis of variance. These experiments led to the conclusion that krill “selectivity” for phytoplankton species is probably size dependent, with solitary cells smaller than 20 μm (maximum diameter) being filtered less rapidly than larger diatoms and chain forming species.

Keywords

Phytoplankton Phytoplankton Species Austral Summer Phytoplankton Cell Phytoplankton Population 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Antezana T, Ray K, Melo C (1982) Trophic behavior of Euphausia superba Dana in laboratory conditions. Polar Biol 1:77–82Google Scholar
  2. Bargmann HE (1945) The development and life history of adlescent and adult krill, Euphausia superba. Discovery Rep 23:103–176Google Scholar
  3. Barkley E (1940) Nahrung und Filterapparat des walkeirbschens Euphausia superba Dana. Z Fisch Deren Hilfswiss 1:65–156Google Scholar
  4. Boyd CM (1976) Selection of particle sizes by filter-feeding copepods: a plea for reason. Limnol Oceanogr 21:175–180Google Scholar
  5. Fleming RH (1939) The control of diatom populations by grazing. J Cons Int Explor Mer 14:210–227Google Scholar
  6. Frost BW (1972) Effects of size and concentration of food particles on the feeding behaviour of the marine planktonic copepod Calanus pacificus. Limnol Oceanogr 17:805–815Google Scholar
  7. Gifford DJ, Bohrer RN, Boyd CM (1981) Spines on diatoms: do copepods care? Limnol Oceanogr 26:1057–1061Google Scholar
  8. Harbison GR, McAlister VL (1979) The filter-feeding rates and particle retention efficiencies of three species of Cyclosalpa (Tunicata, Thaliacca). Limnol Oceanogr 24:875–892Google Scholar
  9. Harris E (1959) The nitrogen cycle in Long Island Sound. Bull Bingham Oceanogr Collect 17:31–65Google Scholar
  10. Hart TJ (1942) Phytoplankton periodicity in Antarctic surface waters. Discovery Rep 21:261–356Google Scholar
  11. Holm-Hansen O, El-Sayed SZ, Franceschini GA, Cuhel K (1977) Primary production and the factors controlling phytoplankton growth in the Antarctic seas. In: Llano GA (ed) Adaptation within Antarctic ecosystems. Proc SCAR Symp in Ant Biol, pp 11–50Google Scholar
  12. Hustedt F (1958) Diatomeen aus der Antarktis und dem Südatlantik. Dt Antark Exped, 1938/1939. Wiss Ergebn 2:103–191Google Scholar
  13. Kato M, Murano M, Segawa S (1979) Estimation of the filtering rate of the Antarctic krill under laboratory conditions. Trans Tokyo U Fisheries 3:107–112Google Scholar
  14. Kawamura A (1973) Patches of E. superba and the diatom community in the surrounding waters. Proc Ann Meeting Japn Oceanogr Soc (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  15. Kawamura A (1981) Food habits of Euphausia superba and the diatom community. In: El-Sayed SZ (ed) BIOMASS, vol 2: Selected contributions to the Woods Hole Conference on living resources of the Southern Ocean 1976, pp 65–68Google Scholar
  16. Mauchline J (1979) Antarctic krill biology. BIOMASS Report Series 10. SCAR/SCOR/IABO/ACMRR Group of Specialists on Living Resources of the Southern OceanGoogle Scholar
  17. McClatchie S, Boyd CM (in press) A morphological study of sieve efficiencies and mandibular surfaces in the antarctic krill, Euphausia superba Google Scholar
  18. Meyer MA (1981) The grazing of Euphausia superba Dana on natural phytoplankton populations. MA Thesis, Texas A&M UniversityGoogle Scholar
  19. Morris D, Clarke A (in preparation) Towards an energy budget for krill: the biochemistry and physiology of Euphausia superba Dana. Polar BiolGoogle Scholar
  20. Nemoto T (1967) Feeding pattern of euphausiids and differentiations in their body characters. Inf Bull Planktol Jpn 157–171Google Scholar
  21. Nemoto T (1968) Chlorophyll pigments in the stomach of euphausiids. J Oceanogr Soc Jpn 24:253–260Google Scholar
  22. Nemoto T (1971/1972) History of research into the food and feeding of euphausiids. Proc R Soc Edinburgh 73:259–265Google Scholar
  23. Parsons TR, Lebrasseur RJ, Fulton JD (1967) Some observations on the dependence of zooplankton grazing on the cell size and concentration of phytoplankton blooms. J Oceanogr Soc Jpn 23:10–17Google Scholar
  24. Pavlov VY (1971) On the physiology of feeding in Euphausia superba. (Proc) Acad Sci USSR 196:147–150Google Scholar
  25. Roman MR, Rublee PA (1980) Containment effects in copepod grazing experiments: a plea to end the black box approach. Limnol Oceanogr 25:982–990Google Scholar
  26. Taylor FJR (1976) Flagellates. In: Steedman HF (ed) Zooplankton fixation and preservation. UNESCO Press, Paris, pp 259–264Google Scholar
  27. Utermöhl H (1958) Zur Vervollkommnung der quantitativen Phytoplankton-Methodik. Int Ver Theor Angew Limnol 9:1–38Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Meyer
    • 1
  • S. Z. El-Sayed
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OceanographyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations