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Changes in thyroid function tests induced by 2 month carbamazepine treatment in l-thyroxine-substituted hypothyroid children

Abstract

In five l-thyroxine-substituted hypothyroid children with partial epilepsy serum total thyroxine (T4) and free T4 (FT4) significantly (P<0.01) decreased following 2 months of carbamazepine (CBZ) administration (20 mg/kg per BW per day) from mean (±SD) values of 12.7±1.1 μg/dl and 15.5±1.8 pg/ml to mean values of 7.5±2.3 and 10.1±1.7, respectively. In all but one patient important changes in both serum total and free triiodothyronine (T3, FT3) were not observed; consequently T3∶T4 and FT3∶FT4 ratios significantly (P<0.05) increased in the whole series. Three subjects had post-treatment serum TSH that rose to hypothyroid levels parallel to a T4 decrease. The negligible thyroid hormone secretion and the unmodified T3-uptake (T3U) or T4-binding globulin (TBG) exclude direct effects of CBZ on thyroid gland and on carrier serum proteins, respectively. The findings observed, instead, might be due to accelerated T4 metabolic clearance together with augmented T4 to T3 conversion rate, as previously demonstrated for diphenylydantoin. The sharp reduction in T4 and FT3 concentrations is the peripheral display of this event, which is associated with a decompensation of the metabolic status, as indicated by serum TSH enhancement. In all cases a supplement of l-thyroxine by itself was able to restore euthyroid TSH serum concentrations, suggesting that hypothyroidism in patients with partial epilepsy to whom CBZ had been administered requires a higher l-T4 substitutive regimen.

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Abbreviations

CBZ:

carbamazepine

DPH:

phentoin

T4 :

thyroxine

T3 :

triiodothyronine

TSH:

thyrotropin

FT4 :

free T4

FT3 :

free T3

rT3 :

reverse T3

TBG:

thyroxine binding globulin

T3U:

T3 uptake

RIA:

radioimmunoassay

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De Luca, F., Arrigo, T., Pandullo, E. et al. Changes in thyroid function tests induced by 2 month carbamazepine treatment in l-thyroxine-substituted hypothyroid children. Eur J Pediatr 145, 77–79 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00441860

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00441860

Key words

  • Carbamazepine and thyroid function tests
  • Serum T4 and anticonvulsivant drugs
  • Primary hypothyroidism in children