, Volume 91, Issue 1, pp 23–28 | Cite as

Deoxynivalenol and 15-monoacetyl deoxynivalenol production by Fusarium graminearum R6576 in liquid media

  • James J. Pestka
  • Abdalla El-Bahrawy
  • L. Patrick Hart


Growth and toxigenesis by Fusarium graminearum R6576, were compared in four liquid media. Parameters monitored during the fermentation were deoxynivalenol (DON) and 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol (15-ADON) production, fungal mass, carbohydrate utilization, and pH. Factors which were varied included basal medium composition, corn steep liquor (CSL) concentration, sucrose concentration and ammonium tartrate concentration. Growth in modified Fries medium resulted in only low levels of DON (0.25 mg/ L) and 15-ADON (0.25 mg/ L) after 20 days. Addition of 4% CSL to modified Fries medium raised the 20 day DON yield to 16.5 mg/ l. Increasing the sucrose concentration in modified Fries medium amended with 4% CSL resulted in increased mycelial dry weight but decreased levels of DON. Concentrations of ammonium tartrate greater than 1% in modified Fries amended with 4% CSL greatly reduced DON yield. Use of glucose-yeast extract-peptone (GYEP) for toxin production resulted in higher yields of 15-ADON (14.0 mg/ L) than DON (5.5 mg/ L) after 20 days. However, supplementation of GYEP with 4% CSL resulted primarily in DON production (4.5 mg/ L) after 20 days. In general, qualitative and quantitative production of DON and 15-ADON by Fusarium graminearum R6576 were dependent on the composition of the complex liquid medium.


Fusarium Graminearum Sucrose Concentration Deoxynivalenol Corn Steep Liquor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cappellini, R. A. & J. L. Peterson, 1965. Macroconidium formation in submerged cultures by a nonsporulating strain of Gibberella zeae. Mycologia 57: 962–966.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    El-Banna, A. A., P. Y. Lau & P. M. Scott, 1983. Fate of mycotoxins during processing of foodstuffs; II: Deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) during making of Egyptian bread. J. Food Prot. 46: 484–486.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Greenhalgh, R., G. A. Neish & J. D. Miller, 1983. Deoxynivalenol, acetyl deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone formation by Canadian isolates of Fusarium graminearum on solid substrates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 46: 625–629.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hanson, R. S. & J. D. Phillips, 1981. Chemical composition, p. 333. In P. Gerhardt (ed.), Manual of methods for general bacteriology, p. 333. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hart, L. P., W. E. Braselton & T. C. Stebbins, 1982. Production of zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in commercial sweet corn. Plant Disease 66: 1133–1135.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hart, L. P. & W. E. Braselton, 1983. Distribution of vomitoxin in dry milled fractions of wheat infected with Gibberella zeae. J. Agr. Food Chem. 31: 657–659.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hart, L. P., J. J. Pestka & M-T. Liu, 1984. Effect of kernel development and moisture on production of deoxynivalenol in wheat infected with Gibberella zeae. Phytopathology 74: 1415–1418.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jarvis, B., 1971. Factors affecting the production of mycotoxins. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 34: 199–213.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kamimura, H., M. Nishijima, K. Saito, K. Yasuda, A. Ibe, T. Nagayama, H. Ushiyama & Y. Naoi, 1979. The decomposition of trichothecene mycotoxins during food processing. J. Food Hyg. (Japan) 20: 352–357.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Miller, J. D., A. Taylor & R. Greenhalgh, 1983. Production of deoxynivalenol and related compounds in liquid culture by Fusarium graminearum. Can. J. Microbiol. 29: 1171–1178.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Miller, J. P., J. C. Young & H. L. Trenholm, 1983. Fusarium toxins in field corn. I. Time course of fungal growth and production of deoxynivalenol and other mycotoxins. Can. J. Bot. 61: 3080–3087.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Moore-Landecker, E., 1972. Fundamentals of the fungi, p. 151. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Morooka, N., N. Uratsuji, T. Yoshizawa & I. Yamamoto, 1972. Studies on the toxic substances in barley infected with Fusarium spp. J. Food Hyg. Soc. (Japan) 13: 368–375.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nelson, P. E., T. A. Toussoun & W. F. O. Marasas, 1983. Fusarium species, an illustrated manual for identification. Penn. State Univ. Press, University Park.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Perlman, D., 1967. Microbial production of therapeutic compounds. In H. J. Pepper (Ed.), Microbial technology. Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pringle, R. B. & R. P. Scheffer, 1963. Purification of the selective toxin of Periconia circinata. Phytopath. 53: 785–787.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Scott, P. M., 1983. The occurrence of vomitoxin in Canadian grains. Toxigenic fungi — their toxins and health hazard. Abstracts of the Third International Mycological Congress, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Trucksess, M. W., S. Nesheim & R. Eppley, 1984. Thin layer chromatographic determination of deoxynivalenol in wheat and corn. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 61: 40–43.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tuite, J., 1969. Plant pathological methods — fungi and bacteria, pp. 1–81. Burgess Press, Minneapolis, Minn.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ueno, Y., 1980. Toxicological evaluation of trichothecene mycotoxins, pp. 663–671. In D. Eaker and T. Wadstrom (Eds.), Natural toxins. Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ueno, Y., M. Sawano & K. Ishii, 1975. Production of trichothecene mycotoxins by Fusarium species in shake cultures. Appl. Microbiol. 30: 4–9.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vesonder, R. F., A. Ciegler & A. H. Jensen, 1973. Isolation of the emetic principle from Fusarium-infected corn. Appl. Microbiol. 26: 1008–1010.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vesonder, R. F., J. J. Ellis, W. F. Kwolek & D. J. DeMarini, 1982. Production of vomitoxin on corn by Fusarium graminearum NRRL 5883 and Fusarium roseum NRRL 6101. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43: 967–970.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vesonder, R. F., A. Ciegler, R. F. Rogers, K. A. Burbridge, R. J. Bothast & A. H. Jensen, 1978. Survey of 1977 crop year preharvest corn for vomitoxin. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 36: 885–888.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yoshizawa, T. & N. Morooka, 1975. Biological modification of trichothecene mycotoxins: Acetylation and deacetylation of deoxynivalenol by Fusarium spp. Appl. Microbiol. 29: 54–58.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yoshizawa, T. & N. Morooka, 1977. Trichothecenes from mold-infested cereals in Japan, pp. 309–320. In J. Rodricks, C. W. Hesseltine & M. A. Mehlman (Eds.), Mycotoxins in human and animal health, Pathotox Publishers, Park Forest South, IL.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • James J. Pestka
    • 1
  • Abdalla El-Bahrawy
    • 1
  • L. Patrick Hart
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, and Department of Botany and Plant PathologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations