Street marijuana, commercial cigarettes and pipe tobaccos were studied for the presence of fungi and actinomycetes associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Aspergillus species and thermophilic actinomycetes were isolated from the smoking materials. In addition, Aspergillus fumigatus spores were isolated from marijuana smoke, indicating the potential hazard involved in developing serious disease. Precipitin antibodies against fungi, particularly Aspergillus, showed a higher prevalence in marijuana smokers, whereas only very few cigarette smokers and nonsmokers demonstrated antibodies to fungi. Cigarette smokers and nonsmokers showed more or less similar prevelance of antibodies against thermophilic actinomycetes.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Andersen, A. A., 1968. New sampler for the collection, sizing and enumeration of viable airborne particles. J. Bacteriol. 76: 471–484.
Chusid, M. J., Gelfand, J. A., Nutter, C. & Fauci, A. S., 1975. Pulmonary aspergillosis, inhalation of contaminated marijuana smoke, chronic granulomatous disease. Ann. Intern. Med. 82: 682–683.
Fink, J. N., Banaszak, E. J., Barboriak, J. J., Hensley, G. T. Kurup, V. P., Scanlon, G. T., Schlueter, D. P., Sosman, A. J., Thiede, W. H. & Unger, G. F., 1976. Interstitial lung disease due to contamination of forced air system. Ann. Intern. med. 84: 406–413.
Hocking, W. G. & Golde, D. W., 1979. The pulmonary alveolar macrophage. N. Engl. J. Med. 301: 580–587.
Kagan, S. L., Sohnle, P. G., Kurup, V. P. & Fink, J. N., 1981. Aspergillus: An inhalable contaminant of marijuana. N. Engl. J. Med. 304: 483–484.
Kurup, V. P. & Fink, J. N., 1975. A scheme for the identification of thermophilic actinomycetes associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2: 55–61.
Kurup, V. P. & Fink, J. N., 1979. Antigens of Micropolyspora faeni strains. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 60: 140–147.
Kurup, V. P., Fink, J. N. & Bauman, D. M., 1976. Thermophilic actinomycetes from the environment. Mycologia 68: 662–666.
Kurup, V. P., Barboriak, J.J., Fink, J. N. & Scribner, G. H., 1976. Immunologic cross-reactions among thermophilic actinomycetes associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 57: 417–421.
Kurup, V. P., Fink, J. N., Scribner, G. H. & Falk. M. J., 1978. Antigenic variability of Aspergillus fumigatus strains. Microbios 19: 191–204.
Llamas, R., Hart, D. R. & Schneider, N. S., 1978. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis associated with smoking moldy marijuana. Chest 73: 871–872.
Ogundero, V. M., 1980. Thermophilic mycoflora of cigarettes and cured tobacco leaves. Mycopathologia 71: 9–11.
Papavassilion, J. G., Piperakis, G. & Marcelon-Kinti, U., 1971. Mycological flora of cigarettes. Mycopathol. Mycol. Appl. 44: 117–120.
Pepys, J., 1969. Hypersensitivity disease of the lung due to fungi and other organisms. pp. 69–111. In: Monograph in Allergy, No. 4. Edited by P. Kallos, M. Hasek, T. M. Inderleitzin, P. A. Miescher & B. H. Waksman. S. Karger, New York.
Tansey, M. R., 1975. Isolation of thermophilic fungi from snuff. Appl. Microbiol. 29: 128–129.
About this article
Cite this article
Kurup, V.P., Resnick, A., Kagen, S.L. et al. Allergenic fungi and actinomycetes in smoking materials and their health implications. Mycopathologia 82, 61–64 (1983). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00436948
- Cigarette Smoker
- Potential Hazard
- Aspergillus Fumigatus