Mycopathologia

, Volume 90, Issue 3, pp 147–153 | Cite as

The mycotoxicological chain and contamination of food by ochratoxin A in the nephropathic and non-nephropathic areas in Yugoslavia

  • Stjepan Pepeljnjak
  • Zdenka Cvetnić
Article

Abstract

Research was carried out on the distribution of moulds on cereals in vegetation and in storerooms in the period from 1974 to 1981 and on ochratoxin (OA) in stored maize and wheat as well as residues of OA in the organs of swine in the nephropathic and non-nephropathic areas in the SR of Croatia, Yugoslavia.

It was shown that moulds belonging to toxogenic species contaminate cereals in vegetation to an approximately equal degree in both areas (Penicillium 6.6–20.0%, Aspergillus 2.5–6.6% and Fusarium 80–100%). Stored cereals were contaminated by species of Penicillium 75–82.8%, Aspergillus 2.5–27.1% and Fusarium 57.1–82.5%, with a somewhat higher degree of contamination in the nephropathic area. Ochratoxin A occurs on cereals on the whole territory of the SR of Croatia, but average concentrations are higher in the nephropathic area (45% of the positive findings of OA were over 2 mg/ kg). Residues of OA in the kidneys (16–77 μg/ kg), liver (0–21 μg/kg) and blood (36–77 μg/l) were detected in 38 organs taken from swine in the nephropathic area, but this toxin was not found in the 6 samples taken from the non-nephropathic area. In the same organs histopathological changes were found in the kidneys (interstitial nephritis with parenchymal degeneration of the distal parts of the tubular epithel) and liver (interstitial hepatitis with fatty degeneration of the liver).

Keywords

Maize Hepatitis Aspergillus Fusarium Average Concentration 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Balzer, I., Č. Bogdanić & S. Pepeljnjak, 1978. Rapid thin layer Chromatographic method for determining Aflatoxin B1, Ochratoxin A, and Zearalenone in corn. J. Assoc. of Anal. Chem. 61: 584–585.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barnett, H. L. & B. B. Hunter, 1972. Illustrated genera of imperfect fungi. 3rd ed. Burgess Publishing Co., Minneapolis, Minnesota.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Booth, C., 1971. The genus Fusarium. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brodnik, T. & N. Klemenc, 1972. Microorganisms in feed and mycotoxicosis in domestic animals. Raziskave in študije (Ljubljana) 50: 41–46.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brodnik, T., N. Klemenc, P. Vospernik & J. Žust, 1977. Maize contamination by moulds and mycotoxins in SR Slovenia-Yugoslavia. Krmiva 19: 29–33.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Christensen, C. M., 1964. Fungi in cereal grains and their products, pp. 9–14. In Gerald N. Wogan (ed.), Mycotoxins in foodstuffs, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Čuturić, S., S. Pepeljnjak & Z. Cvetnić, 1979. The prevalence of micromyces on cereals and other crops in the vegetation growing in a region of endemic nephropathy in middle Posavina. Lij. vjesnik 101: 525–530.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Daniels, G.N. & W. E. Lloyd, 1982. A case of ochratoxicosis in Iowa swine. In Proceedings International Pig Veterinary Society Congress, Mexico, July 26–31.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dvoračkova, I., 1982. Mycotoxicoses in man. Ceskoslovenska Hygiena 27: 302–306.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gilman, J. C., 1957. A manual of soil fungi, 2nd ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hamilton, P. B., W. E. Huff, J. R. Harris & R. D. Wyatt, 1982. Natural occurrences of ochratoxicosis in poultry. Poultry Science 61: 1832–1841.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hitokoto, H., S, Morozumi, T. Wauke, S. Sakai & H. Kurata, 1981. Fungal contamination and mycotoxin-producing potential of dried beans. Mycopathologia 73: 33–38.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hult, K., R. Plestina, S. Čeović, V. Habazin-Novak & B. Radie, 1982. Ochratoxin A in human blood: Analytical results and confirmational tests from a study in connection with Balkan endemic nephropathy. In Proceedings International IUPAC Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins, Vienna, Austria, 1982. pp. 338–341.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hult, K., E. Hökby, S. Gatenbeck, R. Pleština & S. Čeović, 1979. Ochratoxin A and Balkan endemic nephropathy IV. Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in humans. In 4th International IUPAC Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins, Lausanne, 1979.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krogh, P., F. Filing, Benedicte Hald, A. E. Larsen, E. B. Lillehoj, A. Madsen & H. P. Mortensen, 1976. Timedependent disappearance of Ochratoxin A residues in tissues of bacon pigs. Toxicology 6: 235–242.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Krogh, P., 1977. Ochratoxins. On Mycotoxins in human and animal health. Ed. by Pathotox Publishers, Inc. pp. 488–498.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mislivec, P. B., C. T. Dieter & V. R. Bruce, 1975. Mycotoxin-producing potential of mould flora of dried beans. Appl. Microbiol. 29: 522–526.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Muntanola-Cvetković, M. & J. Borisavljević, 1979. Mycopopulations in non-dried and dried corn grains. Acta biol. Yugosl. Biosistematika 501–21.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mužic, S., S. Pepeljnjak, Č. Bogdanić & I. Balzer, 1976. Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in corn. Vet. arhiv 46: 69–73.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ožegović, L. & D. Hlubna, 1977. Mold and their toxins on food and feeds III. Isolates. Veterinaria 26: 183–188.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pavlović, M., R. Pleština & P. Krogh, 1979. Ochratoxin A contamination of foodstuffs in an area with Balkan (endemic) nephropathy. Acta Path. microbiol. scand. Sect. B. 87: 243–246.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pepeljnjak, S. & O. Borčić, 1983. A biochemical and pathological study of experimental ochratoxicosis in albino rats. 6th Yugoslav Medical Biochemists Congress, Split, 1983.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pepeljnjak, S. & S. Čuturić, 1978. Review on the investigations of mycotoxins. Vet. arhiv 48: 33–35.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pepeljnjak, S., S. Mužic & M. Herceg, 1982. Pathogenic influence of Ochratoxin A and B on chicken growth. Vet. arhiv 52: 235–240.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pidopličko, N. M., 1953. Gribnaja flora grubih kormov. Izdateljstvo akademiji nauk Ukrainskoj SSR, Kijev.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Raper, K. B. & D. I. Fennell, 1965. The genus Aspergillus. Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Raper, K. B. & C. Thom, 1949. A manual of the Penicillia. Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Samson, R. A., E. S. Moekstra & C. A. N. von Oorschot, 1981. Introduction to food-borne fungi. Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Centraalbureau Voor Schimmelcultures, Baarn-Delft, 1981.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sargeant, K., A. Sheridan, J. O'Kelly & R. B. A. Carnaghan, 1961. Toxicity associated with certain samples of groundnuts. Nature 192: 1096–1097.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Srikantia, S. G., 1982. An outbreak of aflatoxicosis in man. In Adverse effects of foods, ed. Jelliffe, E. F. P., Jelliffe, D. B. New York, USA. Plenum Press pp. 45–49.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sudakov, N. A., A. I. Yatsyshin, S. N. Kharchenko & I. G. Pogurskii, 1982. Mycotoxicoses and metabolism of pigs. Veterinaria (Moscow) 8: 52–53.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Szemeredi, G. & A. Agüero, 1983. Nephropathy in swine associated with feeding ochratoxin-containing faecal meal prepared from bovine faeces. Magyar Allatorvosok Zapja 38: 45–49.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vukelić, M., M. Belicza, M. Radonić & R. Pleština, 1979. Ochratoxin A and Balkan endemic nephropathy III. Pathological findings in human kidneys. In 4th International IUPAC Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins. Lausanne 1979.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stjepan Pepeljnjak
    • 1
  • Zdenka Cvetnić
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy and BiochemistryUniversity of ZagrebZagrebYugoslavia

Personalised recommendations