, Volume 77, Issue 4, pp 367–370 | Cite as

Drug-increased REM sleep in aged subjects: Butoctamide hydrogen succinate (BAHS)

  • Yasushi Hayashi
  • Eiichi Otomo
  • Nobuyuki Okudaira
  • Shiro Endo
Original Investigations


Butoctamide hydrogen succinate (BAHS), which is related to an organic compound naturally occurring in CSF, has been demonstrated to increase REM sleep in cats and yound adults. In the present study, BAHS was confirmed also to increase REM sleep in healthy aged subjects. The subjects were six females (68–77 years of age). The experiment covered 8 consecutive nights. Identical capsules containing either a placebo (linoleic acid) or 600 mg BAHS were administered 1 h prior to recording, which was started at 9 PM. BAHS tended to stabilize sleep. The average number and percentage of REM periods increased significantly during the drug nights compared with the baseline nights (P<0.05 and P<0.02, respectively). The maximum percentage of BAHS-induced REM sleep was approximately 20%. REM sleep did not exceed the upper limit of the physiological range. A carry-over effect of BAHS occurred during the withdrawal nights. During the drug nights, the average length of REM periods increased in each sleep cycle. The length especially increased significantly in cycle 3 (P<0.05). The histogram of REM sleep showed that REM sleep increased in the middle and the latter part of the night with two apparent peaks. Though REM sleep increased, REM density decreased. The mechanisms by which BAHS increases REM sleep suggests that BAHS increases serotonin in the brain, and that serotonin increases REM sleep secondarily. BAHS seems to be a unique drug which increases REM sleep, while other clinically used drugs suppress it.

Key words

REM sleep Organic bromine compound REM density Butoctamide hydrogen succinate (BAHS) Aged subjects 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Hata H (1975) REM sleep of man, with special reference to the effects of hypnotic drugs on rapid eye movement. Psychiatr Neurol Jp 77:29–52 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  2. Hayashi Y, Otomo E, Endo S, Watanabe H (1979) All night polygraphies for healthy aged persons. Sleep Res 8:122Google Scholar
  3. Hayashi Y, Endo S (1982) Comparison of sleep characteristics of subjects in their 70 s with those in their 80 s. Folia Psychiatr Neurol Jpn 36:23–31Google Scholar
  4. Ichikawa A, Kaneko H, Mori Y, Tomita K (1977) Release of serotonin from mast cells induced by N-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-hydroxybutyramide and catecholamine. Biochem Pharmacol 26:197–202Google Scholar
  5. Ishida Y, Omoto M (1975) Potentiating actions of N-(2-ethylhexyl)-β-oxybutyramide (hexobutyramide) on the 5-HT-contractions of isolated smooth muscle preparations. Oyo Yakuri 9:573–578 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  6. Kales A, Preston TA, Tan TL, Allen C (1970) Hypnotics and altered sleep-dream patterns: All-night EEG studies of glutethinimide, methyprylon, and pentobarbital. Arch Gen Psychiatry 23:211–218Google Scholar
  7. Kameyama T, Sasaki K, Ito K, Suka T, Nishizaki K, Nabeshima K, Sakuma A (1971) The pharmacological effects of N-2-ethylhexyl-β-oxybutyramide semisuccinate. J Med Soc Toho University 18:588–600 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  8. Okudaira N, Torii S, Endo S (1980) The effect of butoctamide hydrogen succinate on nocturnal sleep: All-night polygraphical studies. Psychopharmacology 70:117–121Google Scholar
  9. Otomo E, Araki G, Tomita T, Koga E (1975) Effectiveness of N-(2-ethylhexyl)-β-oxybutyramide semisuccinate (M-2H) on sleep in insomniacs. Igaku No Ayumi 92:258–273 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  10. Rechtschaffen A, Kales A (1968) A manual of standardized terminology, techniques and scoring system for sleep stages of human subjects. Public Health Servies, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  11. Torii S, Mitsumori K, Inubushi S, Yanagisawa I (1973) The REM sleep-inducing action of a naturally occurring organic bromine compound in the encephalé isolé cat. Psychopharmacologia 29:65–75Google Scholar
  12. Torii S, Inubushi S, Sakuma A (1975) Effects of related compounds of naturally occuring bromosubstance on the sleep-wakefulness cycle in the cat. In: Weitzman ED (ed) Advances in sleep research, vol. 2. Spectrum, New York, pp 155–163Google Scholar
  13. Yanagisawa I, Yoshikawa H (1973) A bromine compound isolated from human cerebrospinal fluid, and synthesis-related compounds. Biochem Biophys Acta 329:283–294Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasushi Hayashi
    • 1
  • Eiichi Otomo
    • 2
  • Nobuyuki Okudaira
    • 3
  • Shiro Endo
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of NeurologySecond Hospital, Tokyo Women's Medical CollegeTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Yokufukai Geriatric HospitalTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyToho University School of MedicineTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Department of PsychophysiologyPsychiatric Research Institute of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations