Skip to main content

Cigarette smoking and state-dependent memory

Abstract

Two experiments were carried out to investigate whether cigarette smoking could produce state-dependent learning (SDL) in humans. The first experiment was concerned with the methodological issue of choosing an appropriate control cigarette for use in an SDL design. A low nicotine content (0.2 mg) cigarette was chosen as it did not appear to affect the physiological arousal of the subjects. In Experiment 2, it was shown that cigarette smoking can produce state-dependent memory effects. The most likely basis for the results is the arousal produced by the nicotine content of the cigarette.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Andersson K, Hockey GR (1977) Effects of cigarette smoking on incidental memory. Psychopharmacology 52:223–226

    Google Scholar 

  • Bustamente JA, Jordan A, Vila M, Gonzalez A, Insua A (1970) State dependent learning in humans. Physiol Behav 5:793–796

    Google Scholar 

  • Darley CF, Tinklenberg JR, Roth WT, Atkinson RC (1974) The nature of storage deficits and state-dependent retrieval under marijuana. Psychopharmacologia 37:139–149

    Google Scholar 

  • Frankenhaeuser M, Myrsten A-L, Post B, Johansson G (1971) Behavioural and physiological effects of cigarette smoking in a monotonous situation. Psychopharmacologia 22:1–7

    Google Scholar 

  • Goodwin DW, Powell B, Bremer D, Hoine H, Stern J (1969) Alcohol and recall: State dependent effects in man. Science 163:1358–1360

    Google Scholar 

  • McNicol D (1962) A primer of signal detection theory. George Allen & Unwin, Sydney

    Google Scholar 

  • Overton DA (1978) Major theories of state dependent learning. In: Ho BT, Richards DW, Chute DL (eds) Drug discrimination and state dependent learning. Academic Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Paivio A, Yuille JC, Madigan S (1968) Concreteness, imagery and meaningfulness values for 925 nouns. J Exp Psychol 76:1–25

    Google Scholar 

  • Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene RE (1968) State-trait anxiety inventory. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto

    Google Scholar 

  • Stephens RM (1977) Psychophysiological variables in cigarette smoking and reinforcing effects of nicotine. Addict Behav 2:1–7

    Google Scholar 

  • Swanson JM, Kinsbourne M (1976) Stimulant related state-dependent learning in hyperactive children. Science 192:1354–1357

    Google Scholar 

  • Warburton DM, Wesnes K (1978) Individual differences in smoking and attentional performance. In: Thornton RE (ed) Smoking behaviour: Physiological and psychological influences. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh

    Google Scholar 

  • Williams GD (1980) Effects of cigarette smoking on immediate memory and performance in different kinds of smoker. Br J Psychol 71: 83–90

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Peters, R., McGee, R. Cigarette smoking and state-dependent memory. Psychopharmacology 76, 232–235 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00432551

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00432551

Key words

  • State-dependent learning
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Nicotine
  • Arousal