Sleep: Effects of d- and l-amphetamine in man and in rat

Abstract

Almost identical results are reported in man and in rat for the effects of the amphetamine isomers on polygraphically recorded sleep. In both species, dextro-amphetamine produces a significantly greater increase in waking time. In both species, the two isomers have equal effects in reducing desynchronized sleep time. These findings combined with other recent data suggest that dopamine plays a direct role in wakefulness while norepinephrine is related inversely to amounts of desynchronized sleep.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Andén, N. E., Dahlström, A., Fuxe, K., Larsson, K., Olson, L., Ungerstedt, U.: Ascending monoamine neurons to the telencephalon and diencephalon. Acta physiol. scand. 67, 313–326 (1966)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Baekeland, F.: Pentobarbital and dextroamphetamine sulfate: Effects on the sleep cycle in man. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 11, 388–396 (1967)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bunney, S.: Report to the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (December, 1973)

  4. Bunney, S.: Personal communication

  5. Carlsson, A., Fuxe, K., Hamberger, B., Linqvist, M.: Biochemical and histochemical studies on the effects of imipramine-like drugs and amphetamines on central and peripheral (+)-catecholamine neurons. Acta physiol. scand. 67, 481–497 (1966)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Coulter, J. D., Lester, B. K., Williams, H. L.: Reserpine and sleep. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 19, 134–147 (1971)

    Google Scholar 

  7. Coyle, J. T., Snyder, S. H.: Catecholamine uptake by synaptosomes in homogenates of rat brain. Stereospecificity in different areas. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 170, 221–231 (1969)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Flack, B., Hillarp, N. A., Thieme, G., Torp, A.: Fluorescence of catecholamines and related compounds condensed with formaldehyde. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 10, 348–354 (1962)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Fuxe, K., Hökfelt, T., Ungerstedt, U.: Morphological and functional aspects of central monoamine neurons. Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 13, 93–126 (1971)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Glowinski, J., Axelrod, J.: Effects of drugs on the uptake release and metabolism of H3-norepinephrine in the rat brain. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 149, 43–49 (1965)

    Google Scholar 

  11. Gottesman, C.: Reserpine et vigilance chez le Rat. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 160, 2056–2061 (1966)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Hanson, L. C. F.: Evidence that the central action of amphetamine is mediated by a catecholamine. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 9, 78–88 (1966)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Harris, J. E., Baldessarini, R. J.: Uptake of (3H)-catecholamines by homogenates of rat corpusstriatum and cerebral cortex: Effects of amphetamine analogues. Neuropharmacology 12, 669–679 (1973)

    Google Scholar 

  14. Hartmann, E.: Reserpine: Its effect on the sleep-dream cycle in man. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 9, 242–247 (1966)

    Google Scholar 

  15. Hartmann, E.: The D-state and norepinephrine-dependent systems. In: Sleep and dreaming (E. Hartmann, ed.), pp. 308–328. Boston: Little, Brown 1970a

    Google Scholar 

  16. Hartmann, E.: The functions of sleep. New Haven: Yale University Press 1973d

    Google Scholar 

  17. Hartmann, E., Bridwell, T. J., Schildkraut, J. J.: Alpha-methylparatyrosine and sleep in the rat. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 21, 157–164 (1971a)

    Google Scholar 

  18. Hartmann, E., Chung, R., Draskoczy, P. R., Schildkraut, J. J.: 6-Hydroxydopamine: Effects on sleep in the rat. Nature (Lond.) 233, 425–427 (1971b)

    Google Scholar 

  19. Hartmann, E., Cravens, J.: The effects of long-term administration of psychotropic drugs on human sleep. IV. The effect of chlorpromazine. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 33, 203–218 (1973e)

    Google Scholar 

  20. Hartmann, E., Koski, S., List, S.: Effects of d- and l-amphetamine on sleep in the rat. In: Sleep research, vol. 2 (M. H. Chase, W. C. Stern, and P. L. Walter, eds.), p. 56. Los Angeles (UCLA): Brain Information Service/Brain Research Institute 1973a

    Google Scholar 

  21. Hartmann, E., Orzack, M. H., Branconnier, R.: Deficits produced by sleep deprivation: Reversal by d- and l-amphetamine. In: Sleep research, vol. 3 (M. H. Chase, W. C. Stern, and P. L. Walter, eds.), p. 151. Los Angeles (UCLA): Brain Information Service/Brain Research Institute 1974a

    Google Scholar 

  22. Hartmann, E., Pochay, V., Zwilling, G.: Fusaric acid: Effects on sleep in the rat. In: Sleep research, vol. 4 (M. H. Chase, W. C. Stern, P. L. Walter, eds.), p. 97. Los Angeles (UCLA): Brain Information Service/Brain Research Institute 1975b

    Google Scholar 

  23. Hartmann, E., Zwilling, G.: Effect of alpha and beta blockers on sleep patterns in the rat. In: Sleep research, vol. 1 (M. H. Chase, W. C. Stern, and P. L. Walter, eds.), p. 54. Los Angeles (UCLA): Brain Information Service/Brain Research Institute 1972

    Google Scholar 

  24. Hartmann, E., Zwilling, G., Koski, S., List, S.: The effects of pimozide on sleep in the rat. In: Sleep research, vol. 2 (M. H. Chase, W. C. Stern, and P. L. Walter, eds.), p. 57. Los Angeles (UCLA): Brain Information Service/Brain Research Institute 1973c

    Google Scholar 

  25. Hartmann, E., Zwilling, G., List, S.: Effect of alpha-adrenergic blocker on sleep in the rat. In: Sleep research, vol. 2 (M. H. Chase, W. C. Stern, and P. L. Walter, eds.), p. 58. Los Angeles (UCLA): Brain Information Service/Brain Research Institute 1973b

    Google Scholar 

  26. Hartmann, E., Zwilling, G., Pochay, V.: Norepinephrine and dopamine: Differential effects on sleep in the rat. In: Sleep research, vol. 4 (M. H. Chase, W. C. stern, and P. L. Walter, eds.), p. 77. Los Angeles (UCLA): Brain Information Service/Brain Research Institute 1975a

    Google Scholar 

  27. Hartmann, E., Zwilling, G., Pochay, V., Chung, R.: Intraventricular administration of neurotransmitters: Effect on sleep. In: Sleep research, vol. 3 (M. H. Chase, W. C. Stern, and P. L. Walter, eds.), p. 41. Los Angeles (UCLA): Brain Information Service/Brain Research Institute 1974b

    Google Scholar 

  28. Hoffman, J. S., Domino, E. F.: Comparative effects of reserpine on the sleep cycle of man and cat. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 170, 190–198 (1969)

    Google Scholar 

  29. Jones, B. E.: These de Medecine, University Lyon (1969)

  30. Jones, B. E., Bobillier, P., Jouvet, M.: Effets de la destruction des neurones contenant des catecholamines du mesencephale sur le cycle veillesommeils du chat. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 163, 176–180 (1969)

    Google Scholar 

  31. Jouvet, M.: Biogenic amines and the states of sleep. Science 163, 32–41 (1969)

    Google Scholar 

  32. Kornetsky, C.: The pharmacology of the amphetamines. Sem. Psychiat. 1, 227–235 (1969)

    Google Scholar 

  33. Laties, V. G., Weiss, B.: Performance records enhancement by the amphetamines: A new appraisal. In: Proceeding of Fifth International Congress of Neuropsychopharmacology. H. Brill, J. O. Cole, B. Deniker, H. Hippius, and P. B. Bradley, eds., pp. 800–803. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica Foundation 1967

    Google Scholar 

  34. Marantz, R., Rechtschaffen, A.: Effect of alpha-methyltyrosine on sleep in the rat. Percept. Motor Skills 25, 805–808 (1967)

    Google Scholar 

  35. Matsumoto, J., Jouvet, M.: Effets de reserpine, Dopa et 5HTP sur les deux états de sommeil. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 158, 2137–2140 (1964)

    Google Scholar 

  36. Michel, F., Klein, M., Jouvet, M., Valatx, J. L.: Etude polygraphique du sommeil chez le rat. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 155, 2289–2290 (1961)

    Google Scholar 

  37. Kornetsky, C., Mirsky, A. F., Kessler, E., Dorf, J.: The effects of dextroamphetamine on behavioral deficits produced by sleep loss in humans. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 127, 46–50 (1959)

    Google Scholar 

  38. Rechtschaffen, A., Maron, L.: Effect of amphetamine on the sleep cycle. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 16, 438–445 (1964)

    Google Scholar 

  39. Roldan, E., Weiss, T., Fifkova, E.: Excitability changes during the sleep cycle of the rat. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 15, 775–785 (1963)

    Google Scholar 

  40. Stern, W. C., Morgane, P. J.: The effects of reserpine on sleep and brain biogenic levels in the cat. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 28, 275–286 (1973)

    Google Scholar 

  41. Taylor, K. M., Snyder, S. H.: Amphetamine: Differentiation by d- and l-isomers of behavior involving brain norepinephrine or dopamine. Science 168, 1487–1489 (1970)

    Google Scholar 

  42. Thornburg, J. E., Moore, K. E.: Dopamine and norepinephrine uptake by rat brain synaptosomes: Relative inhibitory potencies of l- and d-amphetamines and amadine. Res. Comm. Chem. Path. Pharmacol. 5, 81–89 (1973)

    Google Scholar 

  43. Walters, J. R., Bunney, B. S., Aghajanian, G. K., Roth, R. H.: Locus coeruleus neurons: Inhibition of firing by d- and l-amphetamine. Fed. Proc. 33, 294 (1974)

    Google Scholar 

  44. Weiss, B., Laties, V. G.: Enhancement of human performance by caffeine and the amphetamines. Pharmacol. Rev. 14, 1–36 (1962)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hartmann, E., Cravens, J. Sleep: Effects of d- and l-amphetamine in man and in rat. Psychopharmacology 50, 171–175 (1976). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00430488

Download citation

Key words

  • Amphetamines
  • Levo-amphetamine
  • Dextro-amphetamine
  • Sleep
  • Waking
  • d-Sleep
  • Desynchronized sleep