Planta

, Volume 160, Issue 5, pp 464–468 | Cite as

Internode length in Zea mays L.

The dwarf-1 mutation controls the 3β-hydroxylation of gibberellin A20 to gibberellin A1
  • Clive Spray
  • Bernard O. Phinney
  • Paul Gaskin
  • Sarah J. Gilmour
  • Jake MacMillan
Article

Abstract

[13C, 3H]Gibberellin A20 (GA20) has been fed to seedlings of normal (tall) and dwarf-5 and dwarf-1 mutants of maize (Zea mays L.). The metabolites from these feeds were identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. [13C, 3H]Gibberellin A20 was metabolized to [13C, 3H]GA29-catabolite and [13C, 3H]GA1 by the normal, and to [13C, 3H]GA29 and [13C, 3H]GA1 by the dwarf-5 mutant. In the dwarf-1 mutant, [13C, 3H]GA20 was metabolized to [13C, 3H]GA29 and [13C, 3H]GA29-catabolite; no evidence was found for the metabolism of [13C, 3H]GA20 to [13C, 3H]GA1. [13C, 3H]Gibberellin A8 was not found in any of the feeds. In all feeds no dilution of 13C in recovered [13C, 3H]GA20 was observed. Also in the dwarf-5 mutant, the [13C]label in the metabolites was apparently undiluted by endogenous [13C]GAs. However, dilution of the [13C]label in metabolites from [13C, 3H]GA20 was observed in normal and dwarf-1 seedlings. The results from the feeding studies provide evidence that the dwarf-1 mutation of maize blocks the conversion of GA20 to GA1.

Key words

Gibberellin metabolism Mutant (dwarf, ZeaStem elongation Zea (gibberellin metabolism) 

Abbreviations

GAn

gibberellin An

GC-MS

combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

HPLC

high-performance liquid chromatography

RP

reverse phase

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Davies, L.J., Rappaport, L. (1975a) Metabolism of tritiated gibberellins in d-5 dwarf maize. I. In excised tissues and intact dwarf and normal plants. Plant Physiol. 55, 620–655Google Scholar
  2. Davies, L.J., Rappaport, L. (1975b) Metabolism of tritiated gibberellins in d-5 dwarf maize. II. [3H]Gibberellin A1, [3H]gibberellin A3, and related compounds. Plant Physiol. 56, 60–66Google Scholar
  3. Gaskin, P., Gilmour, S.J., Lenton, J.R., MacMillan, J., Sponsel, V.M. (in press) Endogenous gibberellins and kauranoids identified from developing grain and germinating seedlings of barley. J. Plant Growth Regul.Google Scholar
  4. Gaskin, P., MacMillan, J., Firn, R.D., Pryce, R.J. (1971) “Parafilm”: a convenient source of n-alkane standards for the determination of gas chromatographic retention indices. Phytochemistry 10, 1155–1157Google Scholar
  5. Hedden, P., Phinney, B.O. (1979) Comparison of ent-kaurene and ent-isokaurene synthesis in cell-free systems from etiolated shoots of normal and dwarf-5 maize seedlings. Phytochemistry 18, 1475–1479Google Scholar
  6. Hedden, P., Phinney, B.O., Heupel, R., Fujii, D., Cohen, H., Gaskin, P., MacMillan, J., Graebe, J.E. (1982) Hormones of young tassels of Zea mays. Phytochemistry 21, 391–393Google Scholar
  7. Ingram, T.J., Reid, J.B., Potts, W.C., Murfet, I.C. (1983) Internode length in Pisum. IV. The effect of the gene Le on gibberellin metabolism. Physiol. Plant. 59, 607–616Google Scholar
  8. Ingram, T.J., Reid, J.B., Murfet, I.C., Gaskin, P., Willis, C.L., MacMillan, J. (1984) Internode length in Pisum. The Le gene controls the 3β-hydroxylation of gibberellin A20 to gibberellin A1. Planta 160, 455–463Google Scholar
  9. Jones, M.G., Metzger, J.D., Zeevaart, J.A.D. (1980) Fractionation of gibberellins in plant extracts by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Plant Physiol. 65, 218–221Google Scholar
  10. Katsumi, M., Foard, D.E., Phinney, B.O. (1983) Evidence for the translocation of gibberellin A3 and gibberellin-like substances in grafts between normal, dwarf-1 and dwarf-5 seedlings of Zea mays L. Plant Cell Physiol. 24, 379–388Google Scholar
  11. Kovats, E. (1958) Gas-chromatographische characterisierung organischer Verbindungen. Teil 1. Retentions indices aliphatischer halogenide, alkohole, aldehyde und ketone. Helv. Chim. Acta 41, 1915–1932Google Scholar
  12. Murfet, I.E. (1978) Interaction of the internode length genes Le-le and Na-na. Pisum News Lett. 10, 54–55Google Scholar
  13. Phinney, B.O. (1961) Dwarfing genes in Zea mays and their relation to the gibberellins. In: Plant growth regulation, pp. 489–501, Klein, R.M., ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IowaGoogle Scholar
  14. Phinney, B.O., Spray, C. (1982) Chemical genetics and the gibberellin pathway in Zea mays L. In: Plant growth substances, Wareing, P.F., ed. Academic Press, New York London, pp. 101–110Google Scholar
  15. Phinney, B.O., Spray, C. (1983) Gibberellin biosynthesis in Zea mays: the 3β-hydroxylation step, GA20 to GA1. In: Pesticide chemistry, human welfare and the environment (IUPAC), vol. A, pp. 81–86, Miyamoto, J., Kearney, P.C., eds. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  16. Phinney, B.O. (in press) Gibberellin A1, dwarfism and the control of shoot elongation in higher plants. In: S.E.B. Seminar Series, vol. 3, Crozier, A., Hillman, J.R., eds. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  17. Potts, W.C., Reid, J.B., Murfet, I.C. (1982) Internode length in Pisum. I. The effect of the Le/le gene difference on endogenous gibberellin-like substances. Physiol. Plant. 55, 323–328Google Scholar
  18. Reid, J.B., Murfet, I.C., Potts, W.C. (1983) Internode length in Pisum. II. Additional information on the relationships and action of loci Le, La, Cry, Na and Lm. J. Exp. Bot. 34, 349–364Google Scholar
  19. Rood, S.B., Koshioka, M., Doublas, T.J., Pharis, R.P. (1982) Metabolism of tritiated gibberellin A20 in maize. Plant Physiol. 70, 1614–1618Google Scholar
  20. Sponsel, V.M., MacMillan, J. (1977) Further studies on the metabolism of gibberellins (GAs) A9, A20 and A29 in immature seeds of Pisum sativum cv. Progress No. 9. Planta 135, 129–136Google Scholar
  21. Sponsel, V.M., MacMillan, J. (1978) Metabolism of gibberellin A29 in seeds of Pisum sativum cv. Progress No. 9: use of [2H] and [3H] GAs, and the identification of a new GA catabolite. Planta 144, 69–78Google Scholar
  22. Sponsel, V.M., MacMillan, J. (1980) Metabolism of [13C1] gibberellin A29 to [13C1]gibberellin-catabolite in maturing seeds of Pisum sativum cv. Progress No. 9. Planta 150, 46–52Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clive Spray
    • 1
  • Bernard O. Phinney
    • 1
  • Paul Gaskin
    • 2
  • Sarah J. Gilmour
    • 2
  • Jake MacMillan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaLos Angeles
  2. 2.A.R.C. Research Group, School of ChemistryUniversity of BristolBristolUK

Personalised recommendations