, Volume 85, Issue 4, pp 444–448 | Cite as

Effects of alcohol on cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine in rhesus monkeys

  • Gary W. Kraemer
  • C. Raymond Lake
  • Michael H. Ebert
  • William T. McKinney
Original Investigations


Alcohol (1–3 g/kg) significantly increased the concentration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) norepinephrine (NE) in rhesus monkeys. This effect is consistent with the previously demonstrated activational and possible antidepressant effect of low doses of alcohol. The greatest increase was observed in subjects with low baseline levels of CSF NE. Individual differences in activation or euphoria could be related to differential increases in CSF NE following alcohol consumption.

Key words

Norepinephrine Alcohol Cerebrospinal fluid Rhesus monkey Depression 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gary W. Kraemer
    • 1
  • C. Raymond Lake
    • 2
  • Michael H. Ebert
    • 3
  • William T. McKinney
    • 4
  1. 1.Wisconsin Psychiatric Research Institute and Harlow Primate LaboratoryUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Psychiatry and PharmacologyUniformed Services University of the Health SciencesBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryVanderbilt University School of MedicineNashvilleUSA
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry and Harlow Primate LaboratoryUniversity of WiskonsinMadisonUSA

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