The effects of long term administration of psychotropic drugs on human sleep: I. Methodology and the effects of placebo
- 23 Downloads
These six papers present the effects on human sleep of long-term administration of reserpine (0.50 mg/day), amitriptyline (50 mg/day), chlorpromazine (50 mg/day), chloral hydrate (500 mg/day), and chlordiazepoxide (50 mg/day).
This initial paper describes in detail the methodology of the entire study which involves six 60-day drug periods for each subject completing the protocol-one period on each of the five drugs and one period on placebo, in a balanced design. Measures of laboratory sleep, home sleep, and mood were obtained throughout the study.
Comparisons between the long placebo-only period of this study and the more usual “baseline” period-laboratory nights 4-6-revealed a significantly higher total desynchronized sleep time (D-time) and D-time per cent in the placebo period. Other variables were not significantly different. Some clear changes over time within the long placebo period are also described.
Key wordsSleep Drugs Psychotropic Drugs Placebo
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Agnew, H. W., Webb, W. B., Williams, R. L.: The first night effect: An EEG study. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 23, 168–171 (1967)Google Scholar
- Brodman, K., Erdmann, A. J., Lorge, J., Wolff, H. C., Broadbent, T. H.: The Cornell Medical Index: An adjunct to medical interviewing. J. Amer. med. Ass. 140, 530 (1949)Google Scholar
- Dement, W.C.: Experimental dream studies. In: Development and research. J. H. Masserman, ed. Science and psychoanalysis, vol. 7, pp. 129–161. New York: Grune & Stratton 1964Google Scholar
- Hartmann, E.: Dreaming sleep (the D-state) and the menstrual cycle. J. nerv. ment. Dis. 143, 406–416 (1966)Google Scholar
- Hartmann, E.: Adaptation to the sleep laboratory and placebo effect. (Report to the Association for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep, Santa Monica, California, April 1967.) Abstract: Psychophysiology 4, 389 (1967)Google Scholar
- Hartmann, E.: Amitriptyline and imipramine. Effects on human sleep. (Report to the Association for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep, Denver, Colorado, March 1968.) Abstract: Psychophysiology 5, 207 (1968a)Google Scholar
- Hartmann, E.: The effect of four drugs on sleep in man. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 12, 346–353 (1968b)Google Scholar
- Hartmann, E.: The biochemistry and pharmacology of the D-state (dreaming sleep) In: Drugs and dreams-Proceedings of the Carl Neuberg Society for International Scientific Relations, Philadelphia: March 29–30, 1967). Exp. Med. Surg. 27, 105–120 (1969)Google Scholar
- Hartmann, E., Cravens, J.: The effects of long term administration of psychotropic drugs on human sleep. V. The effects of chloral hydrate. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 33, 219–232 (1973)Google Scholar
- Hartmann, E., Cravens, J., List, S.: l-Tryptophane as a natural hypnotic: A doseresponse study in man. Report to the Association for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep, San Diego, May 1973Google Scholar
- Hartmann, E., Davis, D.: A comparison of the effects of an OTC sleeping medication, placebo, and no medication on human sleep. Report to the Association for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep, San Diego, May 1973Google Scholar
- Kales, A., Allen, C., Scharf, M. B., Kales, J. D.: Hypnotic drugs and their effectiveness: All-night EEG studies of insomniac subjects. Arch. gen. Psychiat. 23 226–232 (1970)Google Scholar
- Kales, A., Kales, J. D., Scharf, M. B., Tan, T.-L.: Hypnotics and altered sleepdream patterns. 2. All-night EEG studies of chloral hydrate, flurazepam, and methaqualone. Arch. gen. Psychiat. 23, 219–225 (1970)Google Scholar
- Kales, A., Malmstram, E. J., Kee, H. K., Kales, J. D., Tan, T.-L.: Effects of hypnotics on sleep patterns, dreaming, and mood state-Laboratory and home studies. Biol. Psychiat. 1, 235–241 (1969)Google Scholar
- Kales, A., Preston, T. A., Tan, T.-L., Allen, C.: Hypnotics and altered sleepdream patterns. 1. All-night EEG studies of flutethimide, methyprylon, and pentobarbital. Arch. gen. Psychiat. 23, 211–218 (1970)Google Scholar
- Lana, R. E., Lubin, A.: The effect of correlation on the repeated measures design. Educ. Psychol. Measmt. 23, 729–739 (1963)Google Scholar
- McNair, D. M., Lorr, M., Droppleman, L. P.: Profile of Mood States (Manual), San Diego, Educ. & Indus. Testing Serv. (1971)Google Scholar
- Rechtschaffen, A., Kales, A., eds. with Berger, R. J., Dement, W. C., Jacobson, A., Johnson, L. C., Jouvet, M., Monroe, L. J., Oswald, I., Roffward, H. P., Roth, B., Walter, R. D.: A Manual for Standardized Terminology, Techniques and Scoring System for Sleep Stages of Human Subjects. Wash. D.C.: Publ. Health Serv. U.S. Govt. Print. Off. (1968), Publication No. 204Google Scholar
- Rotter, J. B., Willerman, B.: The incomplete sentence test as a method of studying personality. J. cons. Psychol. 11, 43 (1947)Google Scholar
- Shader, R. I., DiMascio, A. (eds.): Psychotropic drug side effects: Clinical and theoretical perspectives. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins 1970Google Scholar