, Volume 81, Issue 2, pp 107–110 | Cite as

Prior behavioral experience can reverse the effects of morphine

  • J. E. Barrett
  • J. A. Stanley
Original Investigations


Morphine administration typically decreases responding of squirrel monkeys trained to avoid electric shock. However, the rate-decreasing effects of morphine on avoidance responding were reversed after either concurrent or prior exposure to a condition in which responding was maintained by shock presentation. These findings demonstrate that behavioral experience can play a significant role in, determining the behavioral effects of drugs and that specific types of environmental conditions can completely reverse the usual effects those drugs have on behavior.

Key words

Morphine Behavioral history Schedulecontrolled behavior Drugs and noxious stimuli Avoidance Behavioral experience Experience Squirrel monkeys 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. E. Barrett
    • 1
  • J. A. Stanley
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, School of MedicineUniformed Services University of the Health SciencesBethesdaUSA

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