, Volume 84, Issue 2, pp 231–236 | Cite as

Tobacco withdrawal symptoms: An experimental analysis

  • Dorothy K. Hatsukami
  • John R. Hughes
  • Roy W. Pickens
  • Dace Svikis
Original Investigations


This study was a prospective examination of tobacco withdrawal symptoms in a controlled environment. Smokers (N=27) were hospitalized for a 7-day period during which a battery of tests was administered. Smokers were assigned to either an experimental group (N=20) or a control group (N=7). Subjects in the experimental group smoked ad libitum for a 3-day baseline period and then underwent 4 days of tobacco deprivation. Subjects in the control group continued to smoke ad libitum throughout the study. Of the 37 measures of tobacco withdrawal employed in this study, nine showed significant changes following tobacco deprivation. These changes include decreased heart rate and increased caloric intake, weight, craving for tobacco, confusion, depression-dejection, number of awakenings, duration of awakenings, and increased poor concentrations as observed by others.

Key words

Smoking Tobacco withdrawal 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ashton H, Stepney R (1982) Smoking: Psychology and pharmacology. Travistock, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Burns BH (1969) Chronic chest disease, personality and success in stopping cigarette smoking. Br J Prev Soc Med 23:23–37Google Scholar
  3. Carskadon MA, Dement WC, Mitler MM, Guilleminault MD, Zarcone VD, Spiegel R (1976) Self-report vs. sleep lab findings in 122 drug-free subjects with complaints of chronic insomnia. Am J Psychiatry 133:82–88Google Scholar
  4. Falk JL (1971) The nature and determinants of adjunctive behavior. Physiol Behav 6:577–588Google Scholar
  5. Fletcher C, Doll R (1969) A survey of doctors' attitudes to smoking. Brit J Prev Soc Med 23:145–153Google Scholar
  6. Frankenhaeuser M, Myrsten AL, Post B, Johansson G (1971) Behavioral and physiological effects of cigarette smoking in monotonous situation. Psychopharmacologia 22:1–7Google Scholar
  7. Gilbert RM, Pope MA (1982) Early effects of quitting smoking. Psychopharmacology 78:121–127Google Scholar
  8. Glauser SC, Glauser EM, Reidenberg MM, Rusy BF, Tallarida RJ (1970) Metabolic changes associated with the cessation of cigarette smoking. Arch Environ Health 20:337–381Google Scholar
  9. Grunberg NE (1982) The effects of nicotine and cigarette smoking on food consumption and taste preferences. Addict Behav 7:317–331Google Scholar
  10. Heimstra NW (1973) The effects of smoking on mood change. In: Dunn WG (ed) Smoking behavior: Motives and incentives. Winston and Sons, Washington DC, pp 197–207Google Scholar
  11. Himmelsbach CK (1942) clinical studies of drug addiction: Physical dependence, withdrawal and recovery. Arch Intern Med 69:776–782Google Scholar
  12. Hughes JR, Frederiksen LW, Frazier M (1976) A carbon monoxide analyzer for measurement of smoking behavior. Behav Ther 9:293–296Google Scholar
  13. Hughes JR, Hatsukami DK, Pickens RW, Krahn D, Malin S, Luknic A (1984) Effect of nicotine on the tobacco withdrawal syndrome. Psychopharmacology 83:82–87Google Scholar
  14. Hughes JR, Hatsukami DK (1984) Short-term effects of nicotine gum. In: Grabowski J, Hall S (eds) Pharmacological adjuncts in the treatment of tobacco dependence, Natl Inst Drug Abuse Res monogr (in press)Google Scholar
  15. Jaffe JH, Jarvik ME (1978) Tobacco use disorder. In: Lipton MA, DiMascio A, Killam KF (eds) Psychopharmacology: A generation of progress. Raven, New York, pp 1665–1676Google Scholar
  16. Kales JD, Allen C, Preston TA, Tan TL (1970) Changes in REM sleep and dreaming with cigarette smoking and following withdrawal. Psychophysiology 7:347–348Google Scholar
  17. Knapp PH, Bliss CM, Wells H (1963) Addictive aspects in heavy cigarette smoking. Am J Psychiatry 119:966–972Google Scholar
  18. Kupfer DJ, Detre TP, Foster G, Tucker GJ, Delgado J (1972) The application of Delgado's telemetric mobility recorder to human studies. Behavioral Biology 1:585–590Google Scholar
  19. Larson PS, Haag HB, Silvette H (1961) Tobacco: Experimental and clinical studies. Williams and Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  20. McNair DM, Lorr M, Droppleman LF (1971) Manual for the profile of mood states. Educational and Industrial Testing Service, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  21. Murphee ME, Schultz RE (1968) Abstinence effects in smokers. Fed Proc 27:220Google Scholar
  22. Myrsten AL, Algerot A, Edgren B (1977) Effects of abstinence from tobacco smoking on physiological and psychological arousal levels in habitual smokers. Psychosom Med 39:25–38Google Scholar
  23. Parsons LC, Hamme S (1975) The effects of nicotine withdrawal on the sleep awake cycle. Va J Sci 27:86Google Scholar
  24. Parsons LC, Luttrell N, Gabe J, Pollock P (1975) The effect of 48-hour nicotine withdrawal on all night sleep patterns in adult females. Va J Sci 26:192Google Scholar
  25. Pomerleau OF, Fertig JB, Shanahan SO (1983) Nicotine dependence in cigarette smoking: an empirically-based, multivariate model. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 19:291–299Google Scholar
  26. Russell MAH (1976) Tobacco smoking and nicotine dependence. In: Giffins RJ, Israel Y, Kalant H et al (eds) Research Advances in alcohol and drug problems, vol 3. Wiley and Sons, New York, pp 1–47Google Scholar
  27. Schachter S (1978) Pharmacological and psychological determinants of smoking. Ann Int Med 88:104–114Google Scholar
  28. Shiffman SM (1979) The tobacco withdrawal syndrome. Res Monogr 23:158–184Google Scholar
  29. Shiffman SM, Jarvik ME (1976) Smoking withdrawal symptoms in 2 weeks of abstinence. Psychopharmacology 50:35–39Google Scholar
  30. Soldatos CR, Kales JD, Scharf MB, Bixler MB, Kales A (1980) Cigarette smoking associates with sleep difficulty. Science 207:551–553Google Scholar
  31. US Public Health Service (1976) Adult use of tobacco. National Clearinghouse for Smoking and Health, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  32. US Public Health Service (1979) The health consequences of smoking: Reference edition (CDE), 78-8357 US Govt Print Off Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  33. Wack JT, Rodin J (1982) Smoking and its effects on body weight and the system of caloric regulation. Am J Clin Nutr 35:366–380Google Scholar
  34. Weybrew BB, Stark JD (1967) Psychological and physiological changes associated with deprivation from smoking, US Naval Submarine and Medical Center Report 490. NAGoogle Scholar
  35. Wikler A (1965) Conditioning factors in opiate addiction and relapse. In: Wilner DM, Kassebaum GG (eds) Narcotics. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 85–100Google Scholar
  36. Wynder EL, Kaufman PL, Lesser RL (1967) A short-term follow-up study on ex-cigarette smokers, with special emphasis on persistent cough and weight gain. Am Rev Respir Dis 96:645–655Google Scholar
  37. Zeidenberg P, Jaffe JH, Kanzler K, Levitt MD, Langone JJ, Van Vunakis H (1977) Nicotine: Cotinine levels of blood during cessation of smoking. Compr Psychiatry 18:93–101Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dorothy K. Hatsukami
    • 1
    • 2
  • John R. Hughes
    • 1
    • 2
  • Roy W. Pickens
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dace Svikis
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Division of EpidemiologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations