Skip to main content

Effects of acute marijuana smoking on pulse rate and mood states in women

Abstract

The effects of marijuana cigarette (1.8% THC) smoking on pulse rate and mood were studied under double-blind placebo-controlled conditions in 28 adult female volunteers during the follicular, luteal, and ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Statistically significant increases in pulse rate, subjective levels of intoxication, and the POMS confusion factor occurred after marijuana smoking. However, no statistically significant differences for any measure were observed following marijuana smoking as a function of menstrual cycle phase. Subjects with a past history of intermittent marijuana use (five or less times weekly) had significantly higher pulse rates, subjective levels of intoxication, and POMS confusion factor scores than did subjects with a past history of regular (six or more times weekly) marijuana use. Persistence of marijuana-induced changes in pulse rate, intoxication, and confusion were also of longer duration for subjects with a past history of intermittent marijuana smoking. The influence of past history of marijuana use on marijuana-induced alterations in pulse rate, intoxication, and mood for females appears to be similar to males. These similarities are not attenuated as a function of the menstrualcycle phase of females.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Abelson HI, Fishburne PM, Cisin I (1977) National survey on drug abuse 1977, vol 1. Response Analysis Corporation, Princeton NJ

    Google Scholar 

  • Allentuck S (1944) Organic and systemic function. In: Mayor's Committee on Marihuana. The marihuana problem in the City of New York: Sociological, medical, psychological, and pharmacological studies. Cattell, Lancaster PA, pp 51–64

    Google Scholar 

  • Allentuck S, Bowman KM (1942) The psychiatric aspects of marijuana intoxication. Am J Psychiatry 99:248–251

    Google Scholar 

  • Ames F (1958) A clinical and metabolic study of acute intoxication with Cannabis sativa and its role in the model psychoses. J Ment Sci 104:972–999

    Google Scholar 

  • Babor TF, Mendelson JH, Greenberg I, Kuehnle JC (1975) Marihuana consumption and tolerance to physiological and subjective effects. Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:1548–1552

    Google Scholar 

  • Babor TF, Rossi AM, Sagotsky G, Meyer RE (1974) Group behavior: Patterns of smoking. In: Mendelson JH, Rossi AM, Meyer RE (eds) The use of marihuana: A psychological and physiological inquiry Plenum, New York, pp 47–59

    Google Scholar 

  • Baker-Bates ET (1935) A case of Cannabis indica intoxication. Lancet 1:811

    Google Scholar 

  • Bloomquist ER (1968) Marijuana. Glencoe, Beverly Hills CA

    Google Scholar 

  • Bromberg W (1934) Marijuana intoxication, a clinical study of Cannabis sativa intoxication. Am J Psychiatry 91:303–330

    Google Scholar 

  • Cappell H, Pliner P (1974) Cannabis intoxication: The role of pharmacological and psychological variables. In: Miller LL (ed) Marijuana: Effects of behavior. Academic, New York, pp 233–263

    Google Scholar 

  • Carlin AS, Bakker CB, Dee Post R, Halpern L (1972) Social facilitation of marijuana intoxication: Impact of social set and pharmacological activity. J Abnorm Psychol 60:132–140

    Google Scholar 

  • Carlin AS, Dee Post R, Bakker CB, Halpern LM (1974) The role of modeling and previous experience in the facilitation of marijuana intoxication. J Nerv Ment Dis 159:275–281

    Google Scholar 

  • Chopra IC, Chopra RN (1957) The use of cannabis drugs in India. UN Bull Narcotics 9:4–29

    Google Scholar 

  • deFarias RC (1955) Use of maconha (Cannabis sativa L.) in Brazil: Control by health and police authorities. UN Bull Narcotiics 7:5–19

    Google Scholar 

  • Domino EF (1971) Neuropsychopharmacologic studies of marijuana: Some synthetic and natural derivatives in animals and man. Ann NY Acad Sci 191:166–191

    Google Scholar 

  • Forney RB, Kiplinger GF (1971) Toxicology and pharmacology of marijuana. Ann NY Acad Sci 23:74–82

    Google Scholar 

  • Gaskill HS (1945) Marihuana, an intoxicant. Am J Psychiatry 102:202–204

    Google Scholar 

  • Grinspoon L (1971) Marihuana reconsidered. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA

    Google Scholar 

  • Hollister LE (1970) Tetrahydrocannabinol isomers and homologues: Contrasted effects of smoking. Nature 227:968–969

    Google Scholar 

  • Hollister LE (1971) Marijuana in man: Three years later. Science 172:21–29

    Google Scholar 

  • Hollister LE, Overall JE, Gerber ML (1975) Marihuana and setting. Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:798–801

    Google Scholar 

  • Hollister LE, Richard RK, Gillespie HK (1968) Comparison of tetrahydrocannabinol and synhexyl in man. Clin Pharmacol Ther 9:783–791

    Google Scholar 

  • Isbell H, Gorodetzky CW, Jasinski D, Claussen U, von Soulak F, Korte F (1967) Effects of (−)Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in man. Psychopharmacologia 11:184–188

    Google Scholar 

  • Isbell H, Jasinski D (1969) A comparison of LSD-25 with (−)Δ 9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and attempted cross-tolerance between LSD and THC. Psychopharmacologia 14:115–123

    Google Scholar 

  • Jones R (1971) Tetrahydrocannabinol and the marijuana social high or the effects on the mind of marijuana. Ann NY Acad Sci 191:155–165

    Google Scholar 

  • Jones RT, Stone GC (1970) Psychological studies of marihuana and alcohol in man. Psychopharmacologia 18:108–117

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson S, Domino EF (1971) Some cardiovascular effects of marihuana smoking in normal volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 12:762–768

    Google Scholar 

  • Kiplinger GF, Manno JE, Rodda BE, Forney RB (1971) Dose response analysis of the effects of tetrahydrocannabinol in man. Clin Pharmacol Ther 12:650–657

    Google Scholar 

  • Manno JE, Kiplinger GF, Haine SE, Bennett IF, Forney RB (1970) Comparative effects of smoking marihuana or placebo on human motor and mental performance. Clin Pharmacol Ther 11:808–815

    Google Scholar 

  • McNair DM, Lorr M, Droppelman L (1971) Profile of mood states. Educational and Industrial Testing Service, San Diego CA

    Google Scholar 

  • Melges FT, Tinklenberg JR, Gillespie HK, Hollister LE (1970) Temporal disintegration and depersonalization during marijuana intoxication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 23:204–210

    Google Scholar 

  • Mendelson JH, Babor TF, Kuehnle JC, Rossi AM, Bernstein JC, Mello NK, Greenberg L (1976) Behavioral and biologic aspects of marihuana use. Ann NY Acad Sci 282:186–210

    Google Scholar 

  • Meyer RE, Pillard RC, Mirin SM, Shapiro LM (1971) Administration of marihuana to heavy and casual marihuana users. Am J Psychiatry 128:198–204

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller JD, Cisin FH, Gardner-Keaton H, Harrell AV, Wirtz PW, Abelson HI, Fishburne PM (1983) National survey on drug abuse: Main findings 1982. US Government Printing Office, Washington DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Milstein SL, MacCannell KL, Karr GW, Clark S (1974) Marijuana produced changes in cutaneous sensitivity and affect: Users and non-users. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2:367–374

    Google Scholar 

  • Parker CS, Wrigley F (1947) Effects of cannabis. Lancet 2:223

    Google Scholar 

  • Paton WDM, Pertwee RG (1973) The actions of cannabis in man. In: Mechoulam R (ed) Marijuana: Chemistry, pharmacology, metabolism and clinical effects. Academic, New York, pp 287–333

    Google Scholar 

  • Pillard RC (1970) Marihuana. New Engl J Med 282:294–303

    Google Scholar 

  • Pillard RC, McNair DM, Fisher S (1974) Does marihuana enhance experimentally induced anxiety? Psychopharmacologia 40:205–210

    Google Scholar 

  • Prather JE, Fidell LS (1978) Drug use and abuse among women: An overview. Int J Addict 13:863–885

    Google Scholar 

  • Renault PF, Schuster CR, Heinrich R, Freedman DX (1971) Marihuana: Standardized smoke administration and dose-effect curves on heart rate in humans. Science 174:589–591

    Google Scholar 

  • Rossi AM, Babor TF, Mendelson JH, Meyer RE (1974) Mood states. In: Mendelson JH, Rossi AM, Meyer RE (eds) The use of marihuana: A psychological and physiological inquiry. Plenum, New York, pp 115–133

    Google Scholar 

  • Rossi AM, Kuehnle JC, Mendelson JH (1977) Marihuana and mood in human volunteers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 8:447–453

    Google Scholar 

  • Schacter S, Singer SE (1962) Cognitive, social and psychological determinants of emotional state. Psychol Rev 69:379–399

    Google Scholar 

  • Siler JF, Sheep WL, Bates LB, Clark GF, Cook GW, Smith WA (1933) Marihuana smoking in Panama. Mil Surg 73:269–280

    Google Scholar 

  • Smart RG (1983) The epidemiology of cannabis use and its health consequences in Western countries. In: Fehr KO, Kalant H (eds) Cannabis and health hazards. Addiction Research Foundation and World Health Organizationn, Toronto, pp 723–761

    Google Scholar 

  • Smart RG, Goodstadt MS, Sheppard MA, Liban CB (1979) Alcohol and drug use among Ontario students in 1979 and change from 1977: Preliminary findings. Substudy 1070. Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto

    Google Scholar 

  • Tart C (1971) On being stoned: A psychological study of marihuana intoxication. Science and Behavior Books, Palo Alto CA

    Google Scholar 

  • Tayleur-Stockings G (1947) A new euphoriant for depressive mental states. Br Med J 1:919–922

    Google Scholar 

  • Walton RP (1938) Marihuana, America's new drug problem. Lippincott, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Waskow IE, Olsson JE, Satzman C, Katz M (1970) Psychological effects of tetrahydrocannabinol. Arch Gen Psychiatry 22:97–107

    Google Scholar 

  • Weil AT (1970) Adverse reactions to marihuana: Classification and suggested treatment. New Engl J Med 282:997–1000

    Google Scholar 

  • Weil A, Zinberg NE, Nelson JM (1968) Clinical and psychological effects of marihuana use in man. Science 162:1234–1242

    Google Scholar 

  • Williams EH, Himmelsbach CK, Lloyd BJ, Ruble DC, Wikler A (1946) Studies on marihuana and parahexyl compound. Public Health Rep 61:1059–1083

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Lex, B.W., Mendelson, J.H., Bavli, S. et al. Effects of acute marijuana smoking on pulse rate and mood states in women. Psychopharmacology 84, 178–187 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00427443

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00427443

Key words

  • Marijuana
  • Women
  • Acute effects
  • Menstrual-cycle phases
  • Smoking history
  • Mood
  • Intoxication
  • Heart rate