Molecular and General Genetics MGG

, Volume 103, Issue 2, pp 159–175 | Cite as

Inactivation and reversion of multisite streptomycin resistance mutations of Pneumococcus

  • Minna B. Rotheim
  • Arnold W. Ravin


Purified DNAs were prepared from pneumococcal strains bearing either a multisite or single site streptomycin resistance (str-r) marker. In addition, each DNA contained a single site erythromycin resistance marker (ery-r2) or a pair of closely linked ery-r markers (ery-r2 and ery-r6). These DNA preparations were subjected to inactivation by subcritical heating or nitrous acid. Regardless of the genetic size of the streptomycin resistance marker, it was inactivated in a manner identical to that of the ery-r2 marker and less rapidly than that of the linked pair of ery-r markers.

Spontaneous reversions towards decreased resistance have been observed in cultures of multisite mutants. Genetic analysis of the revertants revealed that the multisite mutations had been replaced by mutations with altered properties of recombination.

The simplest interpretation of the evidence is that these are point mutations of such a nature, or occurring in such a region, that recombination is inhibited in the region immediately adjacent to them. In this way they would appear genetically large but physically small.


Recombination Nitrous Acid Point Mutation Erythromycin Single Site 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bresler, S. E., J. L. Kalinin, and D. A. Perumov: Theory of inactivation and reactivation of transforming DNA: Biopolymers 2, 135 (1964).Google Scholar
  2. Chen, K. C., and A. W. Ravin: Heterospecific transformation of pneumococcus and streptococcus I. Relative efficiency and specificity of DNA Helping Effect. J. molec. Biol. 22, 109 (1966).Google Scholar
  3. Ginoza, W., and B. H. Zimm: Mechanisms of inactivation of deoxyribonucleic acids by heat. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 47, 639 (1961).Google Scholar
  4. Green, D. M.: A host specific variation affecting relative frequency of transformation of two markers in Pneumococcus. Exp. Cell Res. 18, 466 (1959).Google Scholar
  5. Hartman, P. E., J. C. Loper, and D. Serman: Fine structure mapping by complete transduction between histidine requiring Salmonella mutants. J. gen. Microbiol. 22, 323 (1960).Google Scholar
  6. Helinski, D. R., and C. Yanofsky: Correspondence between genetic data and the position of amino acid alteration in A. protein. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 48, 173 (1962).Google Scholar
  7. Herschman, S. Z., and G. Felsenfeld: Determination of DNA composition and concentration by spectral analysis. J. molec. Biol. 16, 347 (1966).Google Scholar
  8. Hotchkiss, R. D.: Isolation of sodium deoxyribonucleate in biologically active form from Bacteria. Methods in enzymology. III. (ed. S. P. Colowick and N. O. Kaplan), p. 692. 1957a.Google Scholar
  9. Hotchkiss, R. D.: Characterization of nucleic acids by spectrophotometry. Methods in enzymology. III. (ed. S. P. Colowick and N. O. Kaplan), p. 708. 1957b.Google Scholar
  10. Ishikawa, T.: Genetic studies of ad-8 mutants in Neurospora crassa. I. Genetic fine structure of the ad-8 locus. Genetics 47, 1147, (1962).Google Scholar
  11. Iyer, V. N., and A. W. Ravin: Integration and expression of different lengths of DNA during the transformation of Pneumococcus to erythromycin resistance. Genetics 47, 1355 (1962).Google Scholar
  12. Jordan, E., and M. Meselson: A descrepancy between genetic and physical lengths on the chromosome of bacteriophage lambda. Genetics 51, 77 (1965).Google Scholar
  13. Lacks, S.: Integration efficiency and genetic recombination in pneumococcal transformation. Genetics 53, 207 (1966).Google Scholar
  14. —: A study of the genetic material determining an enzyme activity in pneumococcus. Biochim. biophys. Acta (Amst.) 39, 508 (1960).Google Scholar
  15. Mishra, A. K., and A. W. Ravin: Genetic linkage of streptomycin-dependence and resistance in Pneumococcus. Genetics 53, 1197 (1966).Google Scholar
  16. Ravin, A. W.: Intergenic and intragenic recombination during DNA-induced transformation. Proc. of Symp. on the mutational Process, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague 1965.Google Scholar
  17. —: Heterospecific transformation of Pneumococcus and Streptococcus. III. Reduction of linkage. Genetics 57, 851 (1967).Google Scholar
  18. —: Genetic linkage of mutational sites affecting similar characters in Pneumococcus and Streptococcus. J. Bact. 87, 86 (1964).Google Scholar
  19. —: Genetic mapping of DNA: Influence of the mutated configuration on the frequency of recombination along the length of the molecule. Genetics 47, 1369 (1962).Google Scholar
  20. Ravin, A. W., M. B. Rotheim, and D. C. Coulter: Genetic and biochemical studies of suppression of ribosomal resistance to streptomycin and erythromycin in Pneumococcus. Submitted to Genetics (1968).Google Scholar
  21. Roger, M., and R. D. Hotchkiss: Selective heat inactivation of pneumococcal transforming deoxyribonucleate. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 47, 653 (1961).Google Scholar
  22. Rotheim, M. B.: A genetic factor on the DNA molecule capable of depressing the frequency of transformation at a linked site. Genetics 47, 599 (1962).Google Scholar
  23. —: The mapping of genetic loci affecting streptomycin resistance in Pneumococcus. Genetics 46, 1619 (1961).Google Scholar
  24. ——: Sites of breakage in the DNA molecule as determined by recombination analyses of streptomycin resistance mutations in Pneumococcus. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 52, 30 (1964).Google Scholar
  25. ——: Low frequency of co-integration of two linked streptomycin-resistance markers in Pneumococcus. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 54, 1327 (1965).Google Scholar
  26. Sicard, A. M., and H. Ephrussi-Taylor: Genetic recombination in DNA-induced transformation of Pneumococcus. II. Mapping the amiA region. Genetics 52, 1207 (1965).Google Scholar
  27. Stuart, J. J., and A. W. Ravin: Levels of resistance in ribosomes from genetically linked, streptomycin-resistant mutants of Pneumococcus. J. gen. Microbiol. 51, 411 (1968).Google Scholar
  28. Suyama, Y., K. D. Munkres, and V. W. Woodward: Genetic analysis of the pyr-3 locus of Neurospora crassa: the bearing of recombination and gene conversion upon intraallelic linearity. Genetica 30, 293 (1959).Google Scholar
  29. Tessman, I.: Genetic ultrafine structure in the T4rII region. Genetics 51, 63 (1965).Google Scholar
  30. Traub, P., and M. Nomura: Streptomycin resistance mutation in Escherichia coli: altered ribosomal protein. Science 160, 198 (1968).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1968

Authors and Affiliations

  • Minna B. Rotheim
    • 1
  • Arnold W. Ravin
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.University of RochesterRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of ChicagoChicago(USA)

Personalised recommendations