Tunnel blasting techniques in difficult ground conditions
The quality of tunnelling can be improved by proper blast design which takes into account the rock mass conditions. The effects of different rock mass properties on tunnel blast performance need to be assessed. The strength of the formation and joint orientation critically affected fragmentation and overbreak in a model study of blasting. Similar effects were noted in situ when the performance of a blast pattern in different rock mass conditions in the Tandsi inclines (Bihar, India) were analysed. Accordingly, the on-going blast pattern was modified for the poor ground conditions prevailing in the rest of the inclines. Improved fragmentation and smooth profile were obtained as a result; the rate of drivage improved considerably and the cost of excavation was reduced. Based on the observations in the model studies and the investigations at Tandsi, some guidelines for optimum blast design in difficult ground conditions are suggested.
KeywordsTunnel blasting techniques geology and blast patterns blast performance
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