, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 225–234 | Cite as

Effects of morphine alone and in combination with naloxone or d-amphetamine on shock-maintained behavior in the squirrel monkey

  • L. D. Byrd
Animal Studies


Key-pressing behavior in the squirrel monkey was maintained under an 8-min fixed-interval (FI) schedule of electric-shock delivery. The acute i.m. administration of morphine prior to a daily session decreased response rates at doses of 1.0–3.0 mg/kg but had little systematic effect on rate at doses of 0.03–0.3 mg/kg. When naloxone was administered concomitantly with morphine prior to a session, 0.01 mg/kg naloxone required a three-fold increase in the dose of morphine necessary to obtain decreased response rates, 0.1 mg/kg naloxone required a 30-fold increase in morphine, and 1.0 mg/kg required more than a 30-fold increase in morphine. Moreover, the administration of naloxone with morphine resulted in increased rates of responding at certain combinations of doses of the two drugs. The administration of d-amphetamine (0.03 or 0.1 mg/kg) alone increased mean response rates under the FI schedule; when combined with 0.03–0.3 mg/kg morphine the increases in responding were greater than obtained with d-amphetamine alone. The negative slope of the linear regression lines relating the effects of morphine to control rates of responding engendered under the FI schedule was decreased when morphine was combined with naloxone, but not with d-amphetamine. These results show that naloxone, but not d-amphetamine, can antagonize the response-rate decreasing effect of morphine when responding in the squirrel monkey is maintained by response-produced electric shock.

Key words

Morphine Naloxone d-Amphetamine Schedule-controlled behavior FI schedule Squirrel monkeys 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. D. Byrd
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Psychobiology, Department of PsychiatryHarvard Medical School at the New England Regional Primate Research CenterSouthborough

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