Etonitazene as a reinforcer: Oral intake of etonitazene by rhesus monkeys
- 27 Downloads
Drinking of etonitazene HCl was studied in three rhesus monkeys during daily 3-h sessions. As the drug concentration was increased, the number of liquid deliveries decreased, and etonitazene intake (μg/kg body weight) increased. As fixed-ratio (FR) requirements were increased, rate of responding increased, and liquid deliveries slightly decreased. When water was substituted for the drug, there was a large increase in responding for several sessions, followed by a slow decline to low rates. When etonitazene was reintroduced, responding abruptly increased to previous drug levels. These data suggest that etonitazene can serve as a positive reinforcer when taken orally by rhesus monkeys.
Key wordsRhesus monkeys Etonitazene HCl Etonitazene concentration Etonitazene reinforcement Fixed-ratio schedules Etonitazene drinking Oral self-administration
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Claghorn, J. E., Ordy, J. M., Nagy, A.: Spontaneous opiate addiction in rhesus monkeys. Science 149, 440–441 (1965)Google Scholar
- Henningfield, J. E., Meisch, R. A.: Drinking device for rhesus monkeys. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 4, 609–610 (1976)Google Scholar
- Lewis, M. J., Margules, D. L., Ward, O. B., Jr.: Opioid-reinforced operant behavior: selective suppression by alpha-methyl-paratyrosine. J. Comp. Psychol. 88, 519–527 (1975)Google Scholar
- McMillan, D. E., Leander, J. D.: Schedule-induced oral self-administration of etonitazene. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 4, 137–141 (1976)Google Scholar
- Meisch, R. A.: Ethanol self-administration: infrahuman studies. In: Advances in behavioral pharmacology, T. Thompson and P. B. Dews, eds., pp. 35–84. New York: Academic Press (1977)Google Scholar
- Meisch, R. A., Henningfield, J. E.: Drinking of ethanol by rhesus monkeys: experimental strategies for establishing ethanol as a reinforcer. In: Alcohol intoxication and withdrawal: experimental studies, IIIb. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, Vol. 85b, M. M. Gross, ed., pp. 443–463. New York: Plenum 1977Google Scholar
- Meisch, R. A., Henningfield, J. E., Thompson, T.: Establishment of ethanol as a reinforcer for rhesus monkeys via the oral route: initial results. In: Alcohol intoxication and withdrawal: experimental studies. II. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, Vol. 59, M. M. Gross, ed., pp. 323–342. New York: Plenum 1975Google Scholar
- Meisch, R. A., Stark, L. J.: Establishment of etonitazene as a reinforcer for rats by use of schedule-induced drinking. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 7, 195–203 (1977)Google Scholar
- Meisch, R. A., Thompson, T.: Ethanol intake as a function of concentration during food deprivation and satiation. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 2, 589–596 (1974)Google Scholar
- Mello, N. K., Mendelson, J. H.: Evaluation of a polydipsia technique to induce alcohol consumption in monkeys. Physiol. Behav. 7, 827–836 (1971)Google Scholar
- Wikler, A., Martin, W. R., Pescor, F. T., Eades, C. G.: Factors regulating oral consumption of an opioid (etonitazene) by morphine-addicted rats. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 5, 55–76 (1963)Google Scholar