, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 21–24 | Cite as

Effects on retention of posttraining amphetamine injections in mice: Interaction with pretraining experience

  • John W. Haycock
  • Roderick van Buskirk
  • Paul E. Gold
Original Investigations


These experiments examined the effects of d-amphetamine on retention of one-trial inhibitory (passive) avoidance training in mice. Water-deprived mice were pretrained to lick from a water spout at the end of a darkened compartment. Footschock was administered during licking after 4, 6, or 7 days of pretraining. Retention performance (latency to lick) was measured 24 h after training. The effects on memory of posttraining amphetamine varied not only with amphetamine dose but also with the amount of pretraining. In animals pretraining for 7 days, 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg but not 0.03, 0.1, or 3.0 mg/kg posttraining amphetamine significantly enhanced later retention performance. In mice pretrained for 6 days, 1 mg/kg amphetamine also enhanced retention performance. However, in mice pretrained for only 4 days, 1 mg/kg amphetamine impaired later retention performance. These results are consistent with the view that posttraining treatments may affect memory storage processes by interacting with training-related arousal levels.

Key words

Amphetamine Memory storage processes Avoidance training Retrograde memory enhancement Retrograde amnesia 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Breda, J. B., Carlini, E. A., Sader, N. F.: Effects of chronic administration of (+)-amphetamine on maze performance of the rat. Br. J. Pharmacol. 37, 79–86 (1969)Google Scholar
  2. Gold, P. E., Hankins, L., Edwards, R., Chester, J., McGaugh, J. L.: Memory interference and facilitation with posttrial amygdala stimulation: effect on memory varies with footshock level. Brain Res. 86, 509–513 (1975)Google Scholar
  3. Gold, P. E., McGaugh, J. L.: A single-trace, two-process view of memory storage processes In: Short-term memory, D. Deutsch and J. A. Deutsch (eds.), pp. 355–378. New York: Academic Press 1975Google Scholar
  4. Gold, P. E., van Buskirk, R.: Enhancement of time-dependent processes with posttrial epinephrine injections. Behav. Biol. 13, 145–153 (1975)Google Scholar
  5. Gold, P. E., van Buskirk, R.: Effects of posttrial hormone injections on memory processes. Horm. Behav. (in press, 1976a)Google Scholar
  6. Gold, P. E., van Buskirk, R.: Enhancement and impairment of memory processes with posttrial injections of adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Behav. Biol. 16, 387–400 (1976b)Google Scholar
  7. Gold, P. E., van Buskirk, R., Haycock J. W.: Effects of posttraining epinephrine injections on retention of avoidance training in mice. Behav. Biol. 20, 197–204 (1977)Google Scholar
  8. Haycock, J. W., McGaugh, J. L.: Retrograde amnesia gradients as a function of ECS-intensity. Behav. Biol. 9, 123–127 (1973)Google Scholar
  9. Jarvik, M. E., Kopp, R.: An improved one-trial passive avoidance learning situation. Psychol. Rep. 23, 221–224 (1967)Google Scholar
  10. Jarvik, M. E.: Effects of chemical and physical treatments on learning and memory. Am. Rev. Psychol. 23, 453–486 (1972)Google Scholar
  11. Krivanek, J.: Facilitation of avoidance learning by pentylenetetrazol as a function of task difficulty, deprivation and shock level. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 20, 213–229 (1971)Google Scholar
  12. Krivanek, J., McGaugh, J. L.: Effects of pentylenetetrazol on memory storage in mice. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 12, 303–321 (1968)Google Scholar
  13. Krivanek, J., McGaugh, J. L.: Facilitating effects of pre-and posttrial amphetamine administration on discrimination learning in mice. Agents Actions1, 36–42 (1969)Google Scholar
  14. McGaugh, J. L.: Time-dependent processes in memory storage. Science 153, 1351–1358 (1966)Google Scholar
  15. McGaugh, J. L.: Effects of analeptics on learning and memory in infrahumans. In: Drugs and the brain, P. Black, ed., pp. 241–250, Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press 1969Google Scholar
  16. McGaugh, J. L.: Drug facilitation of learning and memory. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. 13, 229–241 (1973)Google Scholar
  17. McGaugh, J. L., Dawson, R. G.: Modification of memory storage processes. In: Animal memory, W. K. Honig and P. H. R. James, eds., pp. 215–242. New York: Academic Press 1972Google Scholar
  18. McGaugh, J. L., Herz, M. J.: Memory consolidation. San Francisco: Albion Publishing Company 1972Google Scholar
  19. McGaugh, J. L., Krivanek, J.: Strychnine effects on discrimination learning in mice: effects of dose and time of administration. Physiol. Behav. 5, 1437–1442 (1970)Google Scholar
  20. van Buskirk, R. B., McGaugh, J. L.: Pentylenetetrazol-induced retrograde amnesia and brain seizures in mice Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 40, 77–90 (1974)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • John W. Haycock
    • 1
  • Roderick van Buskirk
    • 1
  • Paul E. Gold
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychobiology, School of Biological SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations