Skip to main content

Effects of training at and above the lactate threshold on the lactate threshold and maximal oxygen uptake

Summary

Thirty-three college women (mean age=21.8 years) participated in a 5 d·wk−1, 12 week training program. Subjects were randomly assigned to 3 groups, above lactate threshold (> LT) (N=11; trained at 69 watts above the workload associated with LT), =LT (N=12; trained at the work load associated with LT) and control (C) (N=10). Subjects were assessed for \(\dot V_{O_{2\max } } \), \(\dot V_{O_2 } \)LT, \(\dot V_{O_2 } \)LT/\(\dot V_{O_{2\max } } \), before and after training, using a discontinuous 3 min incremental (starting at 0 watts increasing 34 watts each work load) protocol on a cycle ergometer (Monark). Respiratory gas exchange measures were determined using standard open circuit spirometry while LT was determined from blood samples taken immediately following each work load from an indwelling venous catheter located in the back of a heated hand. Body composition parameters were determined before and after training via hydrostatic weighing. Training work loads were equated so that each subject expended approximately 1465 kJ per training session (Monark cycle ergometer) regardless of training intensity. Pretraining, no significant differences existed between groups for any variable. Post training the > LT group had significantly higher \(\dot V_{O_{2\max } } \) (13%), \(\dot V_{O_2 } \) (47%) and \(\dot V_{O_2 } \)LT/\(\dot V_{O_{2\max } } \) (33%) values as compared to C (p<.05). Within group comparisons revealed that none of the groups significantly changed \(\dot V_{O_{2\max } } \) as a result of training, only the > LT group showed a significant increase in \(\dot V_{O_2 } \) (48%) (p<.05), while both the = LT and > LT group showed significant increases in \(\dot V_{O_2 } \)LT/\(\dot V_{O_{2\max } } \) (= LT 16%, > LT 42% (p<.05)). No differences were found between or within groups post training for body composition parameters. It was concluded that training above the LT results in an improvement in \(\dot V_{O_2 } \)LT and that large improvements in \(\dot V_{O_{2\max } } \) may not be required for large improvements in \(\dot V_{O_2 } \).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. American College of Sports Medicine (1978) Position statement on the recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining fitness in healthy adults. Med Sci Sports 10

  2. Brozek J, Grande F, Anderson JT, Keyes A (1963) Densiometric analysis of body compositon: Revision of some quantitative assumptions. Ann NY, Acad Sci 110:113–140

    Google Scholar 

  3. Costill DL, Gollnick PD, Jansson ED, Saltin B, Stein EM (1973a) Glycogen depletion pattern in human muscle fibers during distance running. Acta Physiol Scand 89:374–383

    Google Scholar 

  4. Costill DL, Thomason H, Roberts E (1973b) Fractional utilization of the aerobic capacity during distance running. Med Sci Sports 5:248–252

    Google Scholar 

  5. Davis JA, Frank MH, Whipp BJ, Wasserman K (1979) Anaerobic threshold alterations cuased by endurance training in middle-aged men. J Appl Physiol: Respirat Environ Exercise Physiol 46:1039–1046

    Google Scholar 

  6. Davis JA, Vodak P, Wilmore JH, Vodak J, Kurtz P (1976) Anaerobic threshold and maximal aerobic power for three modes of exercise. J Appl Physiol 41:544–550

    Google Scholar 

  7. Denis C, Fouquet R, Poty P, Geyssant A, Lacour JR (1982) Effect of 40 weeks of endurance training on the anaerobic threshold. Int J Sports Med 3:208–214

    Google Scholar 

  8. Dwyer J, Bybee R (1983) Heart rate indices of the anaerobic threshold. Med Sci Sports Exerc 15:72–76

    Google Scholar 

  9. Farrell PA, Wilmore JH, Coyle EF, Billing JE, Costill DL (1979) Plasma lactate accumulation and distance running performance. Med Sci Sports Exercise 11:338–344

    Google Scholar 

  10. Flint MM, Drinkwater BL, Horvath SM (1974) Effects of training on women's response to submaximal exercise. Med Sci Sports 6:89–94

    Google Scholar 

  11. Forster HV, Dempsey JA, Thomason J, Vidruk E, DoPico GA (1972) Estimation of arterial PO2, PCO2, pH, and lactate from arterialized venous blood. J Appl Physiol 32:134–137

    Google Scholar 

  12. Green HJ, Hughson RL, Orr GW, Ranney DA (1983) Anaerobic threshold, blood lactate, and muscle metabolites in progressive exercise. J Appl Physiol: Respirat Environ Exercise Physiol 54:1032–1038

    Google Scholar 

  13. Gutman I, Wahlefeld AW (1974) L-(+) Lactate. Determination with lactate dehydrogenase and NAD. Second English Edition. Academic Press Inc, New York, pp 1464–1468

    Google Scholar 

  14. Issekutz, Jr, B, Shaw WAS, Issekutz TB (1975) Effect of lactate on FFA and glycerol turnover in resting and exercising dogs. J Appl Physiol 39:349–353

    Google Scholar 

  15. Ivy JL, Costill DL, Van Handel PJ, Essig DA, Lower RW (1981) Alteration in the lactate threshold with changes in substrate availability. Int J Sports Med 2:139–142

    Google Scholar 

  16. Ivy JL, Withers RT, Van Handel PJ, Elger DH, Costill DL (1980) Muscle respiratory capacity and fiber type as determinants of the lactate threshold. J Appl Physiol: Respirat Environ Exerc Physiol 48:523–527

    Google Scholar 

  17. Karlsson J, Jacobs I (1982) Onset of blood lactate accumulation during muscular exercise as a threshold concept. I. Theoretical considerations. Int J Sports Med 3:190–201

    Google Scholar 

  18. Katch FI, Michael ED, Horvath SM (1967) Estimation of body volume by underwater weighing: Description of a simple method. J Appl Physiol 28:811–813

    Google Scholar 

  19. Katch V, Weltman A, Sady S, Freedson P (1978) Validity of the relative percent concept for equating training intensity. Eur J Appl Physiol 39:219–227

    Google Scholar 

  20. Kilbom A Physical training in women. (1971) Scand Clin Lab Invest 28:[Supl] 119 1–34

  21. Kinderman W, Simon G, Keul J (1979) The significance of the aerobic-anaerobic transition for determination of work load intensities during endurance training. Eur J Appl Physiol 42:25–34

    Google Scholar 

  22. LaFontaine TP, Londeree BR, Spath WK (1981) The maximal steady state versus selected running events. Med Sci Sports Exerc 13:190–192

    Google Scholar 

  23. Niemelia K, Palatsi I, Linnaluoto M, Takkunen J (1980) Criteria for maximum oxygen uptake in progressive bicycletests. Eur J Appl Physiol 44:51–59

    Google Scholar 

  24. Rusko H, Rahkila P, Karvinen E (1980) Anaerobic threshold, skeletal muscle enzymes and fiber composition in young female cross-country skiers. Acta Physiol Scand 108:263–269

    Google Scholar 

  25. Sady S, Katch V, Freedson P, Weltman A (1980) Changes in metabolic acidosis: evidence for an intensity threshold. J Sports Med 20:41–46

    Google Scholar 

  26. Shire TL, Avallone Jr, JP, Boileau RA, Lohman TG, Wirth JC (1977) Effect of high resistance and low resistance bicycle ergometer training in college women on cardiorespiratory function and body composition. Res Quart 48:391–400

    Google Scholar 

  27. Sjodin B, Jacobs I, Svendenhag J (1982) Changes in the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) and muscle enzymes after training at OBLA. Eur J Appl Physiol 49:45–47

    Google Scholar 

  28. Tanaka K, Mausuura Y, Kumagai S, Matsuzaka A, Hirakoba K, Asano K (1983) Relationships of anaerobic threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation with endurance performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 52:51–56

    Google Scholar 

  29. Tesch PA, Sharp DS, Daniels WL (1981) Influence of fiber type composition and capillary density on onset of blood lactate accumulation. Int J Sports Med 2:252–255

    Google Scholar 

  30. Wasserman K, Whipp BJ, Koyal SN, Beaver WL (1973) Anaerobic threshold and respiratory gas exhange during exercise. J Appl Physiol 32:236–243

    Google Scholar 

  31. Weltman A, Katch V, Sady S, Freedson P (1978) Onset of metabolic acidosis (anaerobic threshold) as a criterion measure of submaximum fitness. Res Quart 49:218–227

    Google Scholar 

  32. Weltman A, Katch VL (1979) Relationship between the onset of metabolic acidosis and maximal oxygen uptake. J Sports Med 19:133–142

    Google Scholar 

  33. Wilmore JH (1969) Simplified method for determination of residual lung volume. J Appl Physiol 27:96–100

    Google Scholar 

  34. Yoshida T, Suda Y, Takeuchi N (1982) Endurance training regimen based upon arterial blood lactate: effects on anaerobic threshold. Eur J Appl Physiol 49:223–230

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Arthur Weltman.

Additional information

Data were collected at the Human Performance Laboratory, University of Colorado

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Henritze, J., Weltman, A., Schurrer, R.L. et al. Effects of training at and above the lactate threshold on the lactate threshold and maximal oxygen uptake. Europ. J. Appl. Physiol. 54, 84–88 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00426304

Download citation

Key words

  • Anaerobic threshold
  • Percent body fat