Molecular and General Genetics MGG

, Volume 194, Issue 3, pp 416–422 | Cite as

Location and nucleotide sequence of the gene for cytochrome f in wheat chloroplast DNA

  • David L. Willey
  • Christopher J. Howe
  • Anthony D. Auffret
  • Catherine M. Bowman
  • Tristan A. Dyer
  • John C. Gray


The gene for cytochrome f has been located in wheat chloroplast DNA by hybridisation with a 3.3 kbp BglII fragment of pea chloroplast DNA containing the gene for cytochrome f, by in vitro transcription-translation of cloned restriction fragments of wheat chloroplast DNA and by nucleotide sequence analysis. The gene is located 3 kbp from the 3′ end of the gene for the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and is transcribed from the same DNA strand. Nucleotide sequence analysis reveals an open reading frame of 320 amino acids, of which 285 amino acid residues comprise the mature polypeptide and 35 amino acid residues probably represent an N-terminal signal sequence. The nucleotide sequence of the wheat gene shows 85% homology with the gene for pea cytochrome f.


Nucleotide Sequence Analysis Nucleotide Sequence Polypeptide Amino Acid Residue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alt J, Westhoff P, Sears BB, Nelson N, Hurt E, Hauska G, Herrmann RG (1983) Genes and transcripts for the polypeptides of the cytochrome b6/f complex from spinach thylakoid membranes. EMBO J 2:979–986Google Scholar
  2. Bonner WM, Laskey RA (1974) A film detection method for tritium-labelled proteins and nucleic acids in polyacrylamide gels. Eur J Biochem 46:83–88Google Scholar
  3. Bowman CM, Dyer TA (1982) Purification and analysis of DNA from wheat chloroplasts isolated in non-aqueous media. Anal Biochem 122:108–118Google Scholar
  4. Bowman CM, Koller B, Delius H, Dyer TA (1981) A physical map of wheat chloroplast DNA showing the location of the structural genes for the ribosomal RNAs and the large subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. Mol Gen Genet 183:93–101Google Scholar
  5. Chua N-H, Bennoun P (1975) Thylakoid membrane polypeptides of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: wild-type and mutant strains deficient in Photosystem II reaction center. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:2175–2179Google Scholar
  6. Clewell DB, Helinski DR (1969) Supercoiled circular DNA-protein complex in Escherichia coli: purification and induced conversion to open circular DNA form. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 62:1159–1166Google Scholar
  7. Dickerson RE, Timkovich R (1975) Cytochromes c. In: Boyer PD (ed) The enzymes, vol 11. Academic Press, New York, pp 397–547Google Scholar
  8. Doherty A, Gray JC (1979) Synthesis of cytochrome f by isolated pea chloroplasts. Eur J Biochem 98:87–92Google Scholar
  9. Dretzen G, Bellard M, Sassone-Corsi P, Chambon P (1981) A reliable method for the recovery of DNA fragments from agarose and acrylamide gels. Anal Biochem 112:295–298Google Scholar
  10. Garewal HS, Wasserman AR (1972) “Autoreduction” — an unusual property of pure spinach cytochrome f. Biochim Biophys Acta 275:437–441Google Scholar
  11. Garewal HS, Stuart AL, Wasserman AR (1974) Autoreduction of pure spinach cytochrome f: a light-dependent process inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. Can J Biochem 52:67–70Google Scholar
  12. Gray JC (1978) Purification and properties of monomeric cytochrome f from charlock, Sinapis arvensis L. Eur J Biochem 82:133–141Google Scholar
  13. Gregory P, Bradbeer JW (1973) Plastid development in primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris: the light-induced development of the chloroplast cytochromes. Planta 109:317–326Google Scholar
  14. Guikema JA, Sherman LA (1980) Electrophoretic profiles of cyanobacterial membrane polypeptides showing heme-dependent peroxidase activity. Biochim Biophys Acta 637:189–201Google Scholar
  15. Highfield PE, Ellis RJ (1976) Protein synthesis in chloroplasts VII. Initiation of protein synthesis in isolated intact pea chloroplasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 447:20–27Google Scholar
  16. Ho KK, Krogmann DW (1980) Cytochrome f from spinach and cyanobacteria. J Biol Chem 255:3855–3861Google Scholar
  17. Howe CJ, Auffret AD, Doherty A, Bowman CM, Dyer TA, Gray JC (1982a) Location and nucleotide sequence of the gene for the proton-translocating subunit of wheat chloroplast ATP synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:6903–6907Google Scholar
  18. Howe CJ, Bowman CM, Dyer TA, Gray JC (1982b) Localization of wheat chloroplast genes for the beta and epsilon subunits of ATP synthase. Mol Gen Genet 186:525–530Google Scholar
  19. Howe CJ, Bowman CM, Dyer TA, Gray JC (1983) The genes for the alpha and proton-translocating subunits of wheat chloroplast ATP synthase are close together on the same strand of chloroplast DNA. Mol Gen Genet 190:51–55Google Scholar
  20. Huttly AK, Gray JC (1984) Localisation of genes for four subunits of ATP synthase in pea chloroplast DNA. Mol Gen Genet, in pressGoogle Scholar
  21. Krinner M, Hauska G, Hurt E, Lockau W (1982) A cytochrome f-b 6 complex with plastoquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity from Anabaena variabilis. Biochim Biophys Acta 681:110–117Google Scholar
  22. Laursen RA (1971) Solid-phase Edman degradation. An automatic peptide sequencer. Eur J Biochem 20:89–102Google Scholar
  23. Leis JP, Keller EB (1971) N-formylmethionyl-tRNAf of wheat chloroplasts. Its synthesis by a wheat transformylase. Biochemistry 10:889–894Google Scholar
  24. Matsuzaki E, Kamimura Y, Yamasaki T, Yakushiji E (1975) Purification and properties of cytochrome f from Brassica komatsuna leaves. Plant Cell Physiol 17:237–246Google Scholar
  25. Nelson N, Racker E (1972) Partial resolution of the enzymes catalysing photophosphorylation X. Purification of spinach cytochrome f and its photo-oxidation by resolved photosystem I particles. J Biol Chem 247:3848–3853Google Scholar
  26. Oishi KK, Tewari KK (1983) Characterisation of the gene and mRNA of the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in pea plants. Mol Cell Biol 3:587–595Google Scholar
  27. Palmer JD, Thompson WF (1982) Chloroplast DNA rearrangements are more frequent when a large inverted repeat sequence is lost. Cell 29:537–550Google Scholar
  28. Palva I, Pettersson RF, Kalkinnen N, Lehtovaara P, Sarvas M, Söderlund H, Takkinen K, Kääriäinen L (1981) Nucleotide sequence of the promoter and NH2-terminal signal peptide region of the α-amylase gene from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Gene 15:43–51Google Scholar
  29. Perlman D, Halvorson HO (1983) A putative signal peptidase recognition site and sequence in eukaryotic and prokaryotic signal peptides. J Mol Biol 167:391–409Google Scholar
  30. Phillips AL, Gray JC (1983) Isolation and characterisation of a cytochrome b-f complex from pea chloroplasts. Eur J Biochem 137:553–560Google Scholar
  31. Sanger F, Coulson AR, Barrell BG, Smith AJH, Roe BA (1980) Cloning in single-stranded bacteriophage as an aid to rapid DNA sequencing. J Mol Biol 143:161–178Google Scholar
  32. Schwartz Z, Kossel H (1980) The primary structure of 16S rDNA from Zea mays chloroplasts is homologous to E. coli 16S rRNA. Nature 283:739–742Google Scholar
  33. Siedow JN, Vickery LE, Palmer G (1980) The nature of the axial ligands of spinach cytochrome f. Arch Biochem Biophys 203:101–107Google Scholar
  34. Süss K-H (1976) Identification of chloroplast thylakoid membrane polypeptides: coupling factor of photophosphorylation (CF1) and cytochrome f. FEBS Lett 70:191–196Google Scholar
  35. Sutcliffe JG (1978) Complete nucleotide sequence of Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 43:77–90Google Scholar
  36. Tanaka K, Takahashi M, Asada K (1978) Isolation of monomeric cytochrome f from Japanese radish and a mechanism of autoreduction. J Biol Chem 253:7397–7403Google Scholar
  37. Tohdoh N, Sugiura M (1982) The complete nucleotide sequence of a 16S ribosomal RNA gene from tobacco chloroplasts. Gene 17:213–218Google Scholar
  38. von Heijne G (1983) Patterns of amino acids near signal-sequence cleavage sites. Eur J Biochem 133:17–21Google Scholar
  39. Wachter E, Machleidt W, Hofner H, Otto J (1973) Aminopropyl glass and its p-phenylene diisothiocyanate derivative, a new support in solid-phase Edman degradation of peptides and proteins. FEBS Lett 35:97–102Google Scholar
  40. Wahl GM, Stern M, Stark GR (1979) Efficient transfer of large DNA fragments from agarose gels to diazobenzyloxymethylpaper and rapid hybridization by using dextran sulphate. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:3683–3687Google Scholar
  41. Walker JE, Auffret AD, Carne A, Gurnett A, Hanisch P, Hill D, Saraste M (1982) Solid-phase sequence analysis of polypeptides eluted from polyacrylamide gels. An aid to interpretation of DNA sequences exemplified by the Escherichia coli unc operon and bacteriophage lambda. Eur J Biochem 123:253–260Google Scholar
  42. Willey DL, Huttly AK, Phillips AL, Gray JC (1983) Localization of the gene for cytochrome f in pea chloroplast DNA. Mol Gen Genet 189:85–89Google Scholar
  43. Willey DL, Auffret AD, Gray JC (1984) Structure and topology of cytochrome f in pea chloroplast membranes. Cell 36:555–562Google Scholar
  44. Zimmerman CL, Appella E, Pisano JJ (1977) Rapid analysis of amino acid phenylthiohydantoins by high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Biochem 77:569–573Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • David L. Willey
    • 1
  • Christopher J. Howe
    • 1
  • Anthony D. Auffret
    • 2
  • Catherine M. Bowman
    • 3
  • Tristan A. Dyer
    • 3
  • John C. Gray
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  2. 2.Protein Sequencing Unit, Department of BiochemistryUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK
  3. 3.Plant Breeding InstituteCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations