Early fluid and protein shifts in men during water immersion

  • H. Hinghofer-Szalkay
  • M. H. Harrison
  • J. E. Greenleaf


High precision blood and plasma densitometry was used to measure transvascular fluid shifts during water immersion to the neck. Six men (28–49 years) undertook 30 min of standing immersion in water at 35.0±0.2‡ C; immersion was preceded by 30 min control standing in air at 28±1‡ C. Blood was sampled from an antecubital catheter for determination of blood density (BD), plasma density (PD), haematocrit (Ht), total plasma protein concentration (PPC), and plasma albumin concentration (PAC).

Compared to control, significant decreases (p<0.01) in all these measures were observed after 20 min immersion. At 30 min, plasma volume had increased by 11.0±2.8%; the average density of the fluid shifted from extravascular fluid into the vascular compartment was 1006.3 g · l−1; albumin moved with the fluid and its albumin concentration was about one-third of the plasma protein concentration during early immersion. These calculations are based on the assumption that the F-cell ratio remained unchanged. No changes in erythrocyte water content during immersion were found.

Thus, immersion-induced haemodilution is probably accompanied by protein (mainly albumin) augmentation which accompanies the intravascular fluid shift.

Key words

Blood volume Plasma volume Specific gravity Capillary filtration Ultrafiltrate Albumin Globulins Haematocrit 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Hinghofer-Szalkay
    • 1
  • M. H. Harrison
    • 1
  • J. E. Greenleaf
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Human Environmental Research, Space Physiology BranchNASA Ames Research CenterMoffett FieldUSA

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