Early fluid and protein shifts in men during water immersion
- 48 Downloads
High precision blood and plasma densitometry was used to measure transvascular fluid shifts during water immersion to the neck. Six men (28–49 years) undertook 30 min of standing immersion in water at 35.0±0.2‡ C; immersion was preceded by 30 min control standing in air at 28±1‡ C. Blood was sampled from an antecubital catheter for determination of blood density (BD), plasma density (PD), haematocrit (Ht), total plasma protein concentration (PPC), and plasma albumin concentration (PAC).
Compared to control, significant decreases (p<0.01) in all these measures were observed after 20 min immersion. At 30 min, plasma volume had increased by 11.0±2.8%; the average density of the fluid shifted from extravascular fluid into the vascular compartment was 1006.3 g · l−1; albumin moved with the fluid and its albumin concentration was about one-third of the plasma protein concentration during early immersion. These calculations are based on the assumption that the F-cell ratio remained unchanged. No changes in erythrocyte water content during immersion were found.
Thus, immersion-induced haemodilution is probably accompanied by protein (mainly albumin) augmentation which accompanies the intravascular fluid shift.
Key wordsBlood volume Plasma volume Specific gravity Capillary filtration Ultrafiltrate Albumin Globulins Haematocrit
- Greenleaf JE, Shvartz E, Keil LC (1981) Hemodilution, vasopressin suppression, and diuresis during water immersion in man. Aviat Space Environ Med 58: 328–336Google Scholar
- Greenleaf JE, Shvartz E, Kravik S, Keil LC (1980) Fluid shifts and endocrine responses during chair rest and water immerison in man. J Appl Physiol 48: 78–88Google Scholar
- Harrison MH (1985) Effects of thermal stress and exercise on blood volume in humans. Physiol Rev 65: 169–209Google Scholar
- Khosla SS, Du Bois SB (1981) Osmoregulation and interstitial fluid pressure changes in humans during water immersion. J Appl Physiol: Respirat Environ Exercise Physiol 51: 686–692Google Scholar
- Khosla SS, Du Bois SB (1979) Fluid shifts during initial phase of immersion diuresis in man. J Appl Physiol: Respirat Environ Exercise Physiol 46: 703–708Google Scholar
- Kratky O, Leopold H, Stabinger H (1966) Dichtemessung an Flüssigkeiten und Gasen auf 10−6 g/cm3 bei 0,6 cm3 Probenvolumen. Z Angew Physik 27: 273–277Google Scholar
- Von Diringshofen H (1948) Die Wirkungen des hydrostatischen Druckes des Wasserbades auf den Blutdruck in den Kapillaren und die BindegewebsentwÄsserung. Z Kreis-laufforsch 37: 382–390Google Scholar