Changes in adrenal and testicular activity monitored by salivary sampling in males throughout marathon runs
- 66 Downloads
Measurement of cortisol and testosterone in saliva samples provided by marathon runners at 6.4 km (4-mile) intervals has been used for monitoring acute changes in adrenal and testicular activity, and the changes compared with mean values in timed samples on five rest days.
The collection of mixed whole saliva was well accepted; the missed sample rate in the 8 runners in the Cardiff marathon was less than 10%. On rest days, salivary cortisol and testosterone were within the normal male range and showed a circadian rhythm; mean values at 08.00 h (23.5 nmol L−1; 258 pmol L−1p<0.001, p<0.001 respectively) were higher than at 22.00 h (2.8 nmol L−1; 130 pmol L−1). In samples collected at 09.00 h, immediately prior to the Cardiff marathon, cortisol (25.1 nmol L−1) and testosterone (304 pmol L−1) were higher than the mean values (14.9 nmol L−1; 209 pmol L−1) on non-run days. Concentrations of both steroids increased during the marathon; testosterone peaked (442 pmol L−1) at 21 miles, whereas cortisol continued to increase, being maximal (87.9 nmol L−1) at 30 min after completion of the run. Four of the runners in the Cardiff marathon also participated in the Bristol marathon and the changing patterns in salivary hormones were strictly comparable.
Salivary sampling would appear to be of value in monitoring acute and rhythmic changes in endocrine function in marathon runners. The temporal relationship between changes in salivary cortisol and testosterone are consistent with direct inhibition of testicular secretion by high cortisol concentrations.
Key wordsSaliva Marathon Exercise Cortisol Testosterone
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Adlercreutz H, Harkonnen M, Kuoppasalmi K, Kosunan K, Naveri H, Rehunen S (1976) Physical activity and hormones. Adv Cardiol 18:144–157Google Scholar
- Bambino TH, Hsueh AJW (1981) Direct inhibitory effect of glucocorticoids upon testicular luteinising hormone receptor and steroidogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Endocrinology 108:2142–2148Google Scholar
- Campbell IT, Walker RF, Riad-Fahmy D, Wilson DW, Griffiths K (1982) Circadian rhythms of testosterone and cortisol in saliva: effects of activity-phase shifts and continuous daylight. Chronobiologia 9:389–396Google Scholar
- Cook N, Harris B, Walker R, Hailwood R, Jones R, Johns S, Riad-Fahmy D (1986) The clinical utility of the dexamethasone suppression test assessed by plasma and salivary cortisol determinations. Psychiatry Res 18:143–150Google Scholar
- Cumming DC, Quigley ME, Yen SSC (1983) Acute suppression of circulating testosterone levels by cortisol in man. JCEM 57:671–673Google Scholar
- Dessypris A, Kuoppasalmi K, Adlercreutz H (1976) Plasma cortisol, testosterone, androstenedione and luteinising hormone in a non-competitive marathon run. J Steroid Biochem 7:33–37Google Scholar
- Ekins RP (1981) The ‘precision profile’; its use in RIA assessment and design. Ligand Quarterly 4:33–44Google Scholar
- Galbo H, Hummer L, Petersen IB, Christensen NJ, Bix B (1977) Thyroid and testicular hormone responses to graded and prolonged exercise in man. Eur J Appl Physiol 36:101–106Google Scholar
- Kuoppasalmi K, Naveri H, Harkonnen M, Adlercreutz H (1980) Plasma cortisol, androstenedione, testosterone and luteinising hormone in running exercise of different intensities. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 40:403–409Google Scholar
- Morville R, Pesquies PC, Guezennec CY, Serrurier BD, Guigard M (1979) Plasma variations in testicular and adrenal androgens during prolonged physical exercise in man. Ann d'Endocrinol (Paris) 40:501–510Google Scholar
- Remes K, Kuoppasalmi K, Adlercreutz H (1979) Effect of long-term physical training on plasma testosterone, androstenedione, luteinising hormone and sex-hormone-binding globulin capacity. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 39:743–749Google Scholar
- Schaison G, Durand F, Mowzowicz I (1978) Effect of glucocorticoids on plasma testosterone in man. Acta Endocrinol (Kbh) 89:126–131Google Scholar
- Schurmeyer T, Nieschlag E (1984) Salivary and serum testosterone under physiological and pharmacological conditions. In: Read GF, Riad-Fahmy D, Walker RF, Griffiths K (eds) Immunoassays of steroids in saliva. Cardiff, Alpha Omega, pp 308–316Google Scholar
- Sutton JR, Casey JH (1975) The adrenocortical response to competitive athletics in veteran athletes. JCEM 40:135–138Google Scholar
- Vining RF, McGinley RA, Makavytis JJ, Ho R-Y (1983) Salivary cortisol: a better measure of adrenal cortical function than serum cortisol. Ann Clin Biochem 20:329–335Google Scholar
- Walker RF, Wilson DW, Read GF, Riad-Fahmy D (1980) Assessment of testicular function by the radioimmunoassay of testosterone in saliva. Int J Androl 3:105–120Google Scholar
- Webb ML, Wallace JP, Hamill C, Hodgson JL, Mashaly MM (1984) Serum testosterone concentrations during 2 h of moderate intensity treadmill running in trained men and women. Endocrinol Res 10:27–38Google Scholar