Effect of maximal oxygen uptake and different forms of physical training on serum lipoproteins

  • A. Schnabel
  • W. Kindermann
Article

Summary

260 well trained male sportsmen between 17 and 30 years of age participating in a variety of events were examined for total serum cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol and compared with 37 moderately active leisure-time sportsmen and 20 sedentary controls of similar ages and sex. Lipoprotein cholesterol distribution was determined by quantitative electrophoresis.

Mean HDL-cholesterol increased progressively from the mean of the sedentary controls to the mean of the long-distance runners, indicating a graded effect of physical activity on HDL-cholesterol. In all sporting groups mean LDL-cholesterol tended to be lower than in the controls, no association between LDL-cholesterol and form of training being apparent. Except for the long-distance runners, all sporting groups tended to be lower in total cholesterol than the controls. The HDL-/total cholesterol and LDL/HDL ratios yielded a better discrimination between the physically active and inactive than the HDL-cholesterol alone.

Significant positive correlations with maximal oxygen uptake and roentgenologically determined heart volume were found for HDL-cholesterol and HDL-/total cholesterol, and negative ones for LDL/HDL. Differences in the regressions among subsets made up of sporting groups under different physical demands suggest a positive relationship between lipoprotein distribution and the magnitude of the trained muscle mass.

Key words

Lipoprotein cholesterol Total serum cholesterol Maximal oxygen uptake Heart volume Physical training 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adner MM, Castelli WP (1980) Elevated high-density lipoprotein levels in marathon runners. JAMA 243: 534–536Google Scholar
  2. Altekruse EB, Wilmore JH (1973) Changes in blood chemistries following a controlled exercise program. J Occup Med 15: 110–113Google Scholar
  3. Avogaro P, Cazzolato G, Bittolo Bon G, Quinci GB, Chinello M (1978) HDL-cholesterol, Apolipoproteins A1 and B. Age and index body weight. Atherosclerosis 31: 85–91Google Scholar
  4. Berg A, Keul J, Ringwald G, Deus B, Wybitul K (1980) Physical performance and serum cholesterol fractions in healthy young men. Clin Chim Acta 106: 325–330Google Scholar
  5. Blum CB, Levy RI, Eisenberg S, Hall M, Goebel RH, Berman M (1977) High density lipoprotein metabolism in man. J Clin Invest 60: 795–807Google Scholar
  6. Carlson LA, Ericsson M (1975a) Quantitative and qualitative serum lipoprotein analysis. Part. 1: Studies in healthy men and women. Atherosclerosis 21: 417–433Google Scholar
  7. Carlson LA, Ericsson M (1975b) Quantitative and qualitative serum lipoprotein analysis. Part. 2: Studies in male survivors of myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis 21: 435–450Google Scholar
  8. Castelli WP, Doyle JT, Gorden T, Hames C, Hulley SB, Kagan A, McGee D, Vicic WJ, Zukel WJ (1975) HDL cholesterol levels in coronary heart disease: A cooperative lipoprotein phenotyping study. Circulation [Suppl 2] 52: 97Google Scholar
  9. Castelli WP, Gordon T, Hjortland MC, Kagan A, Doyle JT, Hames CG, Hulley SB, Zukel WJ (1977) Alcohol and blood lipids. The cooperative lipoprotein phenotyping study. Lancet 1: 153–155Google Scholar
  10. Diem K, Lentner C (1975) Wissenschaftliche Tabellen. Documenta Geigy. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 175–181Google Scholar
  11. Dufaux B, Liesen H, Rost R, Heck H, Hollmann W (1979) über den Einflu\ eines Ausdauertrainings auf die Serum-Lipoproteine unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Alpha-Lipoproteine (HDL) bei jungen und Älteren Personen. Dtsch Z Sportmed 30: 123–128Google Scholar
  12. Enger SCh, Herbjörnsen K, Erikssen J, Fretland A (1977) High density lipoproteins (HDL) and physical activity: The influence of physical exercise, age, and smoking on HDL-cholesterol and the HDL-/total cholesterol ratio. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 37: 251–255Google Scholar
  13. Gordon T, Castelli WP, Hjortland MC, Kannel WB, Dawber TR (1977) High density lipoprotein as a protective factor against coronary heart disease. Am J Med 62: 707–714Google Scholar
  14. Hartung HH, Foreyt JP, Mitchell RE, Vlasek I, Gotto AM (1980) Relation of diet to high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in middle-aged marathon runners, joggers, and inactive men. N Engl J Med 302: 357–361Google Scholar
  15. Hennekens CH, Willett W, Rosner B, Cole DS, Mayrent SL (1979) Effects of beer, wine, and liquor in coronary deaths. JAMA 242: 1973–1974Google Scholar
  16. Hoffmann AA, Nelson WR, Goss FA (1967) Effects of an exercise program on plasma lipids of senior air force officers. Am J Cardiol 20: 516–524Google Scholar
  17. Huttunen JK, LÄnsimies E, Voutilainen E, Ehnholm Ch, Hietanen E, PenttilÄ I, Siitonen O, Rauramaa R (1979) Effect of moderate physical exercise on serum lipoproteins. A controlled clinical trial with special reference to serum high-density lipoproteins. Circulation 60: 1220–1229Google Scholar
  18. Kennedy AL, Lappin TRJ, Lavery TD, Hadden DR, Weaver JA (1978) Relation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration to type of diabetes and its control. Br Med J 2: 1191–1194Google Scholar
  19. Lehtonen A, Viikari J (1978) Serum triglycerides and cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in highly physically active men. Acta Med Scand 204: 111–114Google Scholar
  20. Lehtonen A, Viikari J (1980) Serum lipids in soccer and ice-hockey players. Metabolism 29: 36–39Google Scholar
  21. Lehtonen A, Viikari J, Ehnholm C (1979) The effect of exercise on high density (HDL) lipoprotein apoproteins. Acta Physiol Scand 106: 487–488Google Scholar
  22. Levy RI, Lees RS, Fredrickson DS (1966) The nature of pre-beta (very low density) lipoproteins. J Clin Invest 45: 63–77Google Scholar
  23. Lopez-S A, Vial R, Balart L, Arroyave G (1974) Effect of exercise and physical fitness on serum lipids and lipoproteins. Atherosclerosis 20: 1–9Google Scholar
  24. Martin RP, Haskell WL, Wood PD (1977) Blood chemistry and lipid profiles of elite distance runners. Ann NY Acad Sci 301: 346–360Google Scholar
  25. Miller NE, Förde OH, Thelle DS, Mjös OD (1977) TromsØ heart-study. High-density lipoprotein and coronary heart-disease: A prospective case-control study. Lancet 1: 965–968Google Scholar
  26. Miller NE, Rao S, Lewis B, Björsvik G, Myhre K, Mjös OD (1979) High-density lipoprotein and physical activity. Lancet 1: 111Google Scholar
  27. Musshoff K, Reindell H (1956) Zur Röntgenuntersuchung des Herzens in horizontaler und vertikaler Körperstellung. I. Mitteilung: Der Einflu\ der Körperstellung auf das Herzvolumen. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 81: 1001Google Scholar
  28. Neubeck W, Wieland H, Habenicht A, Müller P, Baggio G, Seidel D (1977) Improved assessment of plasma lipoprotein patterns. III. Direct measurement of lipoproteins after gel-electrophoresis. Clin Chem 23: 1296–1300Google Scholar
  29. NikkilÄ EA, Hormila P (1978) Serum lipids and lipoproteins in insulin-treated diabetes. Demonstration of increased high density lipoprotein concentrations. Diabetes 27: 1078–1086Google Scholar
  30. Rhoads GG, Gulbrandsen CL, Kagan A (1976) Serum lipoproteins and coronary heart disease in a population study of Hawaii Japanese men. N Engl J Med 294: 293–298Google Scholar
  31. Seidel D, Wieland H, Ruppert C (1973) Improved techniques for assessment of plasma lipoprotein patterns. I. Precipitation in gels after electrophoresis with polyanionic compounds. Clin Chem 19: 737–739Google Scholar
  32. Steinberg D (1978) The rediscovery of high density lipoprotein: A negative risk factor in atherosclerosis. Eur J Clin Invest 8: 107–109Google Scholar
  33. Strauzenberg SE, Schneider F, Donath R, Zerbes H, Köhler E (1979) The problem of dieting in training and athletic performance. In: Nutritional aspects of physical performance. Bibl Nutr Dieta, vol 27. Karger, Basel, pp 133–142Google Scholar
  34. Vodak PA, Wood PD, Haskell WL, Williams PT (1980) HDL-cholesterol and other plasma lipoprotein concentrations in middle-aged male and female tennis players. Metabolism 29: 745–752Google Scholar
  35. Weltman A, Stamford BA, Matter S, Levy R, Short G, Fulco C (1979) Caloric restriction and/or mild exercise: Effects on body composition and lipoprotein cholesterol. Med Sci Sports 11: 109Google Scholar
  36. Williams P, Robinson D, Bailey A (1979) High-density lipoprotein and coronary risk factors in normal men. Lancet 1: 72–75Google Scholar
  37. Wilson DE, Lees RS (1972) Metabolic relationships among the plasma lipoproteins. Reciprocal changes in the concentrations of very low and low density lipoproteins in man. J Clin Invest 51: 1051–1057Google Scholar
  38. Womersley J, Durnin JVGA (1977) A comparison of the skinfold method with extent of “overweight” and various weight-height relationships in the assessment of obesity. Br J Nutr 38: 271–284Google Scholar
  39. Wood PD, Haskell W, Klein H, Lewis S, Stern MP, Farquhar JW (1976) The distribution of plasma lipoproteins in middle-aged male runners. Metabolism 25: 1249–1257Google Scholar
  40. Wood PD, Haskell WL, Stern SL, Perry C (1977) Plasma lipoprotein distribution in male and female runners. Ann NY Acad Sci 301: 748–763Google Scholar
  41. Zimmer F, Riebeling V, Benke B, Schuster J, Roskamm H (1980) Das LDL-HDL-VerhÄltnis bei Patienten mit Koronarsklerose. Z Kardiol 69: 149–153Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Schnabel
    • 1
  • W. Kindermann
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Sports and Performance MedicineUniversity of SaarlandSaarbrückenFederal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations