The clinical investigator

, Volume 70, Issue 1, pp 14–21 | Cite as

Effects of graded exercise on blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma hormones in cardiac transplant recipients before and during antihypertensive therapy

  • C. E. Angermann
  • C. H. Spes
  • P. Dominiak
  • J. Weil
  • R. Gerzer
  • H. -U. Stempfle
  • B. M. Kemkes
  • K. Theisen


The effects of graded supine ergometry on blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma hormones were studied in 14 hypertensive heart transplant recipients before and after 2 weeks and 6 months of enlapril (20 mg/day) plus furosemide (20–80 mg/day) alone or combined with verapamil (120–360 mg/day). Each time, measurements were obtained at rest and at 25 and 50 W exercise. Anti-hypertensive therapy normalized blood pressure, while heart rate and the blood pressure response to exercise remained unaltered. Pretreatment resting plasma renin activity and catecholamine levels were normal, while atrial natriuretic factor and cyclic guanosine monophosphate concentrations were elevated. All hormones increased significantly with exercise. During treatment, plasma renin activity increased and atrial natriuretic factor and cyclic guanosine monosphosphate levels decreased significantly, with a blunted exercise response; concentration of catecholamines increased significantly, with augmented exercise response. Thus, the chosen regimen allowed effective, lasting BP control in hypertensive transplant patients but was associated with significant changes in plasma hormones. Whereas the rise in plasma renin activity may be attributed to converting enzyme inhibition, the decreases in atrial natriuretic factor and cyclic guanosine monophosphate and increases in catecholamine levels seem to indicate marked changes in resting and particularly exercise hemodynamics during antihypertensive therapy.

Key words

Cardiac transplantation Plasma renin activity Atrial natriuretic factor Cyclic guanosine monophosphate Plasma catecholamines Arterial hypertension Exercise testing 





atrial natriuretic factor


blood pressure


converting enzyme


cyclic guanosine monophosphate




left ventricular




plasma renin activity


right ventricular


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. E. Angermann
    • 1
  • C. H. Spes
    • 1
  • P. Dominiak
    • 4
  • J. Weil
    • 2
  • R. Gerzer
    • 1
  • H. -U. Stempfle
    • 1
  • B. M. Kemkes
    • 3
  • K. Theisen
    • 1
  1. 1.Medizinische Klinik Klinikum Innenstadt Kardiologische AbteilungLudwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMünchen 2FRG
  2. 2.v. Hauner'schen KinderspitalGermany
  3. 3.Herzchirurgischen Klinik, Klinikum GrosshadernGermany
  4. 4.Physiologischen Institut der Universität MünchenGermany

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