Advertisement

Circulating reverse triiodothyronine in humans during exercise

  • B. N. Premachandra
  • W. W. Winder
  • R. Hickson
  • S. Lang
  • J. O. Holloszy
Article

Summary

Circulating thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) as well as blood lactate and glucose concentrations were measured in a group of 12 trained volunteer subjects prior to and after swimming 0.18 or 0.9 km, to determine if increase in metabolic activity was accompanied by diversion of T4 monodeiodination from the active (T4 to T3) to the inactive (T4 to rT3) pathway. The resting T4, T3, and rT3 levels were 8.5 Μg·100 ml−1, 108 ng·100 ml−1, and 57 ng·100 ml−1, respectively, whereas after 0.18 km of swimming the corresponding levels were 9.5 Μg·100 ml−1, 135 ng. 100 ml−1 and 70 ng·100 ml−1. After 0.9 km of swimming, T4, T3, and rT3 levels were 9.0 Μg·100 ml−1, 126 ng·100 ml−1, and 66 ng·100 ml−1, respectively. The swimming was accompanied by hemoconcentration and increase in blood lactate but not in glucose concentrations. In two other investigations thyroid hormones were measured prior to and after 60 or 90 min of moderate exercise on a bicycle ergometer. This exercise had no effect on circulating thyroid hormone levels. Free thyroxine (FT4) concentration and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) capacity were unaltered after exercise. In conclusion, brief strenuous swimming or moderate bicycle exercise had minor or no effect on thyroid hormone concentrations when consideration was given to the attendant hemoconcentration. Even when exercise induced small T3 and rT3 changes were noted, they were in the same direction (increase) thus demonstrating a lack of diversion of peripheral T4 monodeiodination.

Key words

Thyroid hormones Swimming T4 monodeiodination Physical activity Bicycle ergometer 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahlborg G, Felig P, Hagenfeldt L, Hendler R, Wahren J (1974) Substrate turnover during prolonged exercise in man. J Clin Invest 53: 1080–1090PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balsam A, Leppo LE (1975) Effect of physical training on the metabolism of thyroid hormones in man. J Appl Physiol 38: 212–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Berchtold P, Berger M, Cuppers HJ, Herrmann J, Nieschlag E, Rudorff K, Zimmermann H, Kruskemper HL (1978) Non-glucoregulatory hormones (T4, T3, rT3, TSH, testosterone) during physical exercise in juvenile-type diabetics. Horm Metab Res 10: 269–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bergmeyer HU, Bernt E, Schmidt F, Stork H (1974) d-glucose. Determination with hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. In: Bergmeyer HU (ed) Methods of enzymatic analysis, 2nd edn. Academic Press, New York, pp 1196–1201Google Scholar
  5. Burr WA, Black EG, Griffiths RS, Hoffenberg R, Meinhold H, Wenzel KW (1975) Serum triiodothyronine and reverse triiodothyronine concentrations after surgical operation. Lancet 2: 1277–1279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caralis DG, Edwards L, Davis PJ (1977) Serum total and free thyroxine and triiodothyronine during dynamic muscular exercise in man. Am J Physiol 233: E115-E118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chopra IJ, Chopra U, Smith SR, Reza M, Solomon DH (1975a) Reciprocal changes in serum concentrations of 3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine (reverse T3) and 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (T3) in systemic illnesses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 41: 1043–1049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chopra, IJ, Sack J, Fisher DA (1975b) 3,3′,5′-Triiodothyronine (reverse T3) and 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (T3) in fetal and adult sheep: studies of metabolic clearance rates, production rates, serum binding, and thyroidal content relative to thyroxine. Endocrinology 97: 1080–1088PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Gutmann I, Wahlefeld AW, (1974) L-(+)Lactate. Determination with lactate dehydrogenase and NAD. In: Bergmeyer HU (ed) Methods of enzymatic analysis, 2nd edn. Academic Press, New York, pp 1464–1468Google Scholar
  10. Hickson RC, Hagberg JM, Conlee RK, Jones DA, Ehsani AA, Winder WW (1979) Effect of training on hormonal responses to exercise in competitive swimmers. Eur J Appl Physiol 41: 211–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Holloszy JO (1967) Biochemical adaptations in muscle. J Biol Chem 242: 2278–2282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Irvine CHG (1968) Effect of exercise on thyroxine degradation in athletes and non-athletes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 28: 942–948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. O'Connell M, Phinney SD, Horton ES, Sims EAH, Danforth E Jr (1978) The effect of a ketogenic diet and acute exercise on thyroid hormone metabolism. Program and Abstracts of The Endocrine Society 60th Annual Meeting (abstract), p 421Google Scholar
  14. O'Connell M, Robbins DC, Horton ES, Sims EAH, Danforth E Jr, (1979) Changes in serum concentration of 3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine and 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine during prolonged moderate exercise. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 49: 242–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Pitt-Rivers R, Tata JR (1959) The thyroid hormones. Pergamon Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Premachandra BN (1976) A simple and rapid radioimmunoassay of triiodothyronine in unextracted serum. J Nucl Med 17: 411–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Premachandra BN (1978) Radioimmunoassay of reverse triiodothyronine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 47: 746–750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Premachandra BN, Ibrahim II (1974) Use of thyroxine-binding antibodies for rapid estimation of total thyroxine and free thyroxine index in human sera. Radio-immunoassay and Related Procedures in Medicine, vol II. IAEA Symposium Proceedings, Istanbul. IAEA, Vienna, pp 141–160Google Scholar
  19. Premachandra BN, Perlstein IB, Blumenthal HT (1970) Studies on Obesity II. Slow-moving thyroxine binding globulin in the sera of normal and obese subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 30: 752–762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Terjung RL, Winder WW (1975) Exercise and thyroid function. Med Sci Sports 7: 20–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Theilade P, Hansen JM, Skovsted L, Kampmann JP (1979) Effect of exercise on thyroid parameters and on metabolic clearance rate of antipyrine in man. Acta Endocrinol (Kbh) (Copenh) 92: 271–276Google Scholar
  22. Vagenakis AG, Burger A, Portnay GI, Rudolph M, O'Brian JT, Azizi F, Arky RA, Nicod P, Ingbar SH, Braverman LE (1975) Diversion of peripheral thyroxine metabolism from activating to inactivating pathways during complete fasting. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 41: 191–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Winder WW, Hickson RC, Hagberg JM, Ehsani AA, McLane JA (1979) Training-induced changes in hormonal and metabolic responses to submaximal exercise. J Appl Physiol 46: 766–771PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. N. Premachandra
    • 1
  • W. W. Winder
    • 1
  • R. Hickson
    • 1
  • S. Lang
    • 1
  • J. O. Holloszy
    • 1
  1. 1.Veterans Administration Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks, and Departments of Physiology and Preventive MedicineWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations