Skip to main content

The use of low-grade and unsound crushed rock aggregates in Ghana for construction

Summary

Ghana and many developing countries have relied heavily, in the past, on hard granites and granitic gneisses for the production of rock aggregates and rock products for civil engineering works including the construction of roads and buildings. Experience in Ghana has shown however, that the quantity of crushed rock aggregates produced from hard rocks have proved insufficient for the needs of the country. This situation has called for engineering geological studies into the use of rock types and rock formations previously designated as low grade and unsound for the production of aggregates. The major objective of this study was to review the occurrences of non-conventional hard rocks and gravels such as quartzites, silicified sandstones, metagreywackes, dolomitic limestones and quartz gravels. This was followed by the application of appropriate standard specification tests to establish criteria for the selection and recommendation for the use of low grade and unsound rocks and gravels for various civil engineering projects in Ghana and other developing countries, especially those of the subregion with similar geological formations.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • ASTM (1989), Resistance to abrasion by use of the Los Angeles Machine, Designation C131-89 and C535-89. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bates, D.A. (1958) Simplified geological map of Ghana (reprinted 1966). Survey Department of Ghana, Accra.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bhatia, H.S. and Hammond, A.A. (1970) Durability and Strength Properties of Lateritic Aggregates for Ghana. Building and Road Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana, Proj. Rep. SM.5: 15 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • BS 812 (1990). Parts 110, 111, 112, British Standards Institution, London.

  • Charman, J.M. (1988) Laterite in Road Pavements, CIRIA Special Publication 47, Construction Industry Research and Information Assoc., London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cox, E.A. (1973) Roadstone assessment — an art or a science? Quarry Managers Journal, 57 169.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dowling, J.W.F. (1966) The occurrence of laterites in Northern Nigeria and their appearance in aerial photography, Engineering Geology, 1(3), 221–33.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Graft-Johnson, J.W.S., Bhatia, H.S. and Yeboa, S.L. (1972) Influence of geology and physical properties on strength characteristics of lateritic gravels for road pavements. Highway Research Board Record, 405, 87–104.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frost, R.E. (1946) Identification of granular deposits by aerial photograph. Proceeding Highway Research Board, 25, 116–29.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gidigasu, M.D. (1991) Characterization and use of tropical gravels for pavement construction in West Africa, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 9(3/4), 219–60.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hawkes, J.R. and Hosking, J.R. (1972) British Arenaceous Rocks for Skid-resistant Road Surfacings, Transport and Road Research Laboratory Report LR 488, 43 pp.

  • Hosking, J.R. and Tubey, L.W. (1969) Research on Low-grade and Unsound Aggregates, Road Research Laboratory Report LR 293, 30pp.

  • Kuma, D.O.K. (1987) Aerial Photographic Mapping of Granular Materials for Building and Road Construction in Ghana, Ninth Regional Conference for Africa. Proceedings of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Lagos, 545–50.

  • Leverett, I.J. (1970) Evaluation of Rock for Use as Aggregates and Roadstone. Quarry Managers Journal, London.

  • Marwick, A.H.D. and Shergold, F.A. (1945) The aggregate crushing test. Journal of the Institute of Civil Engineers, 24(6), 125–33.

    Google Scholar 

  • Metcalf, J.B. (1991) Use of naturally-occurring but non-standard materials in low-cost road construction, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 9(3/4), 155–65.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shergold, F.A. (1948) A Review of Available Information on the Significance of Roadstone Tests, Road Research Technical Paper 10, HMSO, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shergold, F.A. and Hosking, J.R. (1959) A new method of evaluating the strength of roadstone, Roads and Road Construction, 37(438), 1964–67.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tubey, L.W. and Beaven, P.J. (1966) A Study of the Petrology of Some Soft Limestones from Jamaica in Relation to their Engineering Properties, Ministry of Transport, RRL Report No. 21.

  • Turk, N., and Dearman, W.R. (1989) An investigation of the relation between ten percent fines load and crushing value tests of aggregates (UK), Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology, 39, 145–54.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weinert, H.H. (1980) The aggregate crushing value and the ten percent fines ACI test compared. Proceedings of the 7th Regional Conference for Africa, Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Ghana, Vol. 1, 191–200, Balkema, Rotterdam.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kuma, D.O.K. The use of low-grade and unsound crushed rock aggregates in Ghana for construction. Geotech Geol Eng 13, 217–225 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00422211

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00422211

Keywords

  • Aggregate
  • road
  • crushed rock