A work-energy approach to determine individual joint contributions to vertical jump performance

Summary

A work-energy approach was used to determine the contributions of the muscles crossing the hip, knee and ankle joints to the total positive work done during maximal vertical jumps. It was found that the average relative contributions of the ankle and hip muscles were approximately 23 and 28% respectively, with the remaining 49% of the work being done by the muscles acting at the knee joint. The efficiency of jumping, i.e. the ratio of potential energy gained to the net mechanical work done by the muscles acting at the three lower limb joints was nearly 1.0. These results stress the importance of all three major leg extensor muscle groups to the performance of an explosive activity such as vertical jumping. It is suggested that the work-energy approach supplies useful information concerning joint contributions without the problems associated with other techniques.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Asmussen E, Bonde-Petersen F (1974) Storage of elastic energy in skeletal muscle in man. Acta Physiol Scand 91: 385–392

    Google Scholar 

  2. Bosco C, Komi P (1979) Mechanical characteristics and fiber composition of human leg extensor muscles. Eur J Appl Physiol 41: 275–284

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bouisset S (1973) EMG and muscle force in normal motor activities. In: Desmedt JE (ed) New developments in electromyography and clinical neurophysiology. Karger, New York, pp 547–583

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bresler B, Frankel JP (1950) The forces and moments in the leg during level walking. Trans ASME 72: 27–36

    Google Scholar 

  5. Desipres M (1976) Polyparametric study of the vertical jump. In: Komi P (ed) Biomechanics V-B. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 73–80

    Google Scholar 

  6. Dons B, Bollerup K, Bonde-Petersen F, Hancke S (1979) The effect of weight lifting exercises related to muscle fiber composition and muscle cross sectional area in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 40: 95–106

    Google Scholar 

  7. Elftman H (1939) Forces and energy changes in the leg during walking. Am J Physiol 125: 339–356

    Google Scholar 

  8. Gollnick P, Armstrong R, Saltin B, Saubertin CW, Sembrowich WL, Shepherd RE (1973) Effects of training on the enzyme activity and fiber composition of human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 34(1): 107–111

    Google Scholar 

  9. Hay JG, Dapena J, Wilson BD, Andrews J, Woodward G (1978) An analysis of joint contributions to performance of a gross motor skill. In: Asmussen E, Jorgensen K (eds) Biomechanics VI-B. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 64–70

    Google Scholar 

  10. Komi P, Bosco C (1978) Utilization of elastic energy in jumping and its relation to skeletal muscle fiber composition in man. In: Asmussen E, Jorgensen K (eds) Biomechanics VI-A. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 79–85

    Google Scholar 

  11. Luhtanen P, Komi P (1978) Segmental contribution to force in vertical jump. Eur J Appl Physiol 38: 181–188

    Google Scholar 

  12. Luhtanen P, Komi P (1979) Mechanical power and segmental contribution to force impulses in long jump take-off. Eur J Appl Physiol 41: 267–274

    Google Scholar 

  13. Miller DI, East DJ (1976) Kinematic and kinetic correlates of vertical jumping in women. In: Komi P (ed) Biomechanics V-B. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 65–73

    Google Scholar 

  14. Prince F, Hikida R, Hagerman F (1976) Human muscle fiber types in power lifters, distance runners and untrained subjects. Pflügers Arch 363: 19–26

    Google Scholar 

  15. Quanbury AO, Winter DA, Reimer GD (1975) Instantaneous power and power flow in body segments during walking. J Hum Movement Studies 1: 59–67

    Google Scholar 

  16. Robertson GE, Winter DA (1980) Mechanical energy generation, absorption and transfer amongst segments during walking. J Biomech 13: 845–854

    Google Scholar 

  17. Thomson JA, Green HJ, Houston ME (1979) Muscle glycogen depletion patterns in fast twitch fibre subgroups of man during submaximal exercise. Pflügers Arch 279: 105–108

    Google Scholar 

  18. Winter DA (1980) Overall principle of lower limb support during stance phase of gait. J Biomech 13: 923–927

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to C. L. Hubley.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hubley, C.L., Wells, R.P. A work-energy approach to determine individual joint contributions to vertical jump performance. Europ. J. Appl. Physiol. 50, 247–254 (1983). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00422163

Download citation

Key words

  • Work
  • Energy
  • Joint contributions
  • Vertical jumping