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Diabetologia

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 381–387 | Cite as

Diet, cow's milk protein antibodies and the risk of IDDM in Finnish children

  • S. M. Virtanen
  • T. Saukkonen
  • E. Savilahti
  • K. Ylönen
  • L. Räsänen
  • A. Aro
  • M. Knip
  • J. Tuomilehto
  • H. K. Åkerblom
  • R. Lounamaa
  • L. Toivanen
  • E. A. Kaprio
  • J. Pitkäniemi
  • E. Virtala
  • A. Fagerlund
  • M. v. Flittner
  • B. Gustafsson
  • C. Häggqvist
  • A. Hakulinen
  • L. Herva
  • P. Hiltunen
  • T. Huhtamäki
  • N. -P. Huttunen
  • T. Huupponen
  • M. Hyttinen
  • T. Joki
  • R. Jokisalo
  • M. -L. Käär
  • S. Kallio
  • U. Kaski
  • L. Laine
  • J. Lappalainen
  • J. Mäenpää
  • A. -L. Mäkelä
  • K. Niemi
  • A. Niiranen
  • P. Ojajärvi
  • T. Otonkoski
  • K. Pihlajamäki
  • S. Pöntynen
  • J. Rajantie
  • J. Sankala
  • J. Schumacher
  • M. Sillanpää
  • M. -R. Ståhlberg
  • C. -H. Stråhlmann
  • T. Uotila
  • M. Väre
  • P. Varimo
Originals

Summary

Associations of infant feeding patterns and milk consumption with cow's milk protein antibody titres were studied in 697 newly-diagnosed diabetic children, 415 sibling-control children and 86 birth-date-and sex-matched population-based control children in the nationwide “Childhood Diabetes in Finland” study. IgA and IgG antibody titres to the proteins of cow's milk formula, BLG and BSA, and IgM antibody titres to cow's milk formula proteins were measured by ELISA. Several inverse correlations were observed between the duration of breast-feeding or age at introduction of dairy products and antibody titres, and positive correlations were observed between milk consumption and antibody titres in all three populations studied. Multivariate analyses which included the infant feeding variables, milk consumption and current age simultaneously showed that the earlier the introduction of dairy products and the greater the consumption of milk was, the higher several antibody titres were. High IgA antibody titres to cow's milk formula were associated with a greater risk of IDDM both among diabeticpopulation-control and diabetic-sibling-control pairs when adjusted for other cow's milk antibody titres, dietary variables and in diabetic-sibling-control pairs also for ICA. The results suggest that young age at introduction of dairy products and high milk consumption during childhood increase the levels of cow's milk antibodies and that high IgA antibodies to cow's milk formula are independently associated with increased risk of IDDM.

Key words

Infant feeding dairy products cow's milk protein antibodies IDDM childhood islet cell antibodies insulin autoantibodies 

Abbreviations

IDDM

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

BLG

betalactoglobulin

BSA

bovine serum albumin

ICA

islet cell antibodies

IAA

insulin autoantibodies

OR

odds ratio

CI

confidence interval

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. M. Virtanen
    • 1
    • 2
  • T. Saukkonen
    • 2
  • E. Savilahti
    • 3
  • K. Ylönen
    • 1
  • L. Räsänen
    • 1
  • A. Aro
    • 4
  • M. Knip
    • 6
  • J. Tuomilehto
    • 5
  • H. K. Åkerblom
    • 2
  • R. Lounamaa
  • L. Toivanen
  • E. A. Kaprio
  • J. Pitkäniemi
  • E. Virtala
  • A. Fagerlund
  • M. v. Flittner
  • B. Gustafsson
  • C. Häggqvist
  • A. Hakulinen
  • L. Herva
  • P. Hiltunen
  • T. Huhtamäki
  • N. -P. Huttunen
  • T. Huupponen
  • M. Hyttinen
  • T. Joki
  • R. Jokisalo
  • M. -L. Käär
  • S. Kallio
  • U. Kaski
  • L. Laine
  • J. Lappalainen
  • J. Mäenpää
  • A. -L. Mäkelä
  • K. Niemi
  • A. Niiranen
  • P. Ojajärvi
  • T. Otonkoski
  • K. Pihlajamäki
  • S. Pöntynen
  • J. Rajantie
  • J. Sankala
  • J. Schumacher
  • M. Sillanpää
  • M. -R. Ståhlberg
  • C. -H. Stråhlmann
  • T. Uotila
  • M. Väre
  • P. Varimo
  1. 1.Division of Nutrition, Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology and the Children's HospitalUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Second Department of PediatricsUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.First Department of PediatricsUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  4. 4.Department of NutritionNational Public Health InstituteHelsinkiFinland
  5. 5.Department of Epidemiology and Health PromotionNational Public Health InstituteHelsinkiFinland
  6. 6.Department of PaediatricsUniversity of OuluOuluFinland

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