, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 108–117 | Cite as

Psychological studies of marijuana and alcohol in man

  • Reese T. Jones
  • George C. Stone
Original Investigations


Regular users of marijuana (cannabis sativa) were given smoked and orally administered marijuana, a placebo, or alcohol. They were unable to distinguish between smoked marijuana and the tetrahydrocannabinol-free placebo. The oral administration of tincture of cannabis produced primarily dysphoric symptoms and was similar to alcohol in this respect. The smoked marijuana altered pulse rate, time estimation, and EEG, but had no effect on a measure of field dependence or on a digit symbol substitution task. Both drugs appeared to be mild intoxicants in a laboratory setting. Consideration of the dose, prior experience with drugs, setting, and possible cross tolerance of marijuana and alcohol are important in evaluating the significance of the clinical effects.


Cannabis (Marijuana) Alcohol Psychopharmacology Placebos Drug Abuse 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ames, F.: A clinical and metabolic study of acute intoxication with cannabis sativa and its role in the model psychosis. J. ment. Sci. 104, 972–999 (1958).Google Scholar
  2. Clark, L. D., Nakashima, E. N.: Experimental studies of marijuana. Amer. J. Psychiat. 125, 379–384 (1968).Google Scholar
  3. Hollister, L. E., Richards, R. K., Gillespie, H. K.: Comparison of tetrahydrocannabinol and synhexyl in man. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 9, 783–791 (1968).Google Scholar
  4. Isbell, H. C., Gorodetzsky, C. W., Jasinski, D., Claussen, U., Spulak, F., Korte, F.: Effects of (-)-Δ9 Trans-tetrahydrocannabinol in man. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 11, 184–188 (1967).Google Scholar
  5. —, Jasinski, D. R.: A comparison of LSD-25 with (-)-Δ9 Trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and attempted cross tolerance between LSD andTHC. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 14, 115–123 (1969).Google Scholar
  6. Katz, M. M., Waskow, I. E., Olsson, J.: Characterizing the psychological states produced by LSD. J. abnorm. Psychol. 73, 1–14 (1968).Google Scholar
  7. Kristofferson, M. W.: Effect of alcohol on perceptual field dependence. J. abnorm. Psychol. 73, 387–391 (1968).Google Scholar
  8. Lee, P. K., Che, M. H., Dobkin, A. B.: Effects of alcoholism, morphinism and barbiturate resistance on induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia. Canad. Anaesth. Soc. J. 11, 354–381 (1964).Google Scholar
  9. Mayor's Committee on Marijuana: The marijuana problem in the city of New York Lancaster, Pa.: Jaques Catell Press 1944.Google Scholar
  10. Mirsky, A. F., Kornetsky, C.: On the dissimilar effects of drugs on the digit symbol substitution and continuous performance tests. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 5, 161–177 (1964).Google Scholar
  11. The Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America. American Medical Association, Chicago 1938.Google Scholar
  12. Seevers, M. H., and Deneau, G. A.: Physiological aspects of tolerance and physical dependence. In: Root, W. S., and Hofmann, F. G. (Eds.). Physiological Pharmacology. New York: Academic Press 1963.Google Scholar
  13. Waskow, I. E., Olsson, J. E., Salzman, C., Katz, M.: Psychological effects of tetrahydrocannabinol. Arch. gen. Psychiat. 22, 97–107 (1970).Google Scholar
  14. Weil, A. T., Zinberg, N. E., Nelson, J. M.: Clinical and psychological effects of marijuana in man. Science 162, 1234–1242 (1968).Google Scholar
  15. Wikler, A., Lloyd, B.: Effect of smoking marijuana cigarettes on cortical electrical activity. Fed. Proc. 4, 141 (1945).Google Scholar
  16. Winer, B. J.: Statistical principles in experimental design. New York: McGraw-Hill 1962.Google Scholar
  17. Witkin, H. A., Lewis, H. B., Hertzman, M., Machover, K., Meissner, P. B., Wapner, S.: Personality through perception. New York: Harper 1954.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reese T. Jones
    • 1
    • 2
  • George C. Stone
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric InstituteSan Francisco
  2. 2.School of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaSan Francisco

Personalised recommendations