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Binding of antibodies in sera from Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients to glutamate decarboxylase from rat tissues. Evidence for antigenic and non-antigenic forms of the enzyme

Summary

An islet protein of Mr 64000, identified as the γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-synthesizing enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase, is a major target for antibodies in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. This enzyme is also expressed in brain and in some other tissues and may exist in multiple forms. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of antibodies from diabetic patients to recognize glutamate decarboxylase from rat islets, brain and other normal rat tissues. Glutamate decarboxylase was detected at high activity levels in brain and at lower levels in islets, kidney, liver, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, testis and ovary. The ability of antibodies in sera of diabetic patients to immunoprecipitate enzyme activity from detergent extracts of tissues was determined. Antibodies in sera from diabetic patients were found to bind the enzyme from islet and brain extracts, but bound less than 20% of the activity from other tissues. The ability of antibodies to immunoprecipitate the brain enzyme was significantly correlated with the presence of antibodies to the islet 64 kilodalton antigen. These studies show that the glutamate decarboxylase activity expressed in brain shares antigenic determinants with the islet 64 kilodalton antigen. Isoforms of the enzyme expressed in other nonneuronal tissues may be antigenically distinct and may lack determinants recognized by diabetes-associated antibodies.

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Christie, M.R., Brown, T.J. & Cassidy, D. Binding of antibodies in sera from Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients to glutamate decarboxylase from rat tissues. Evidence for antigenic and non-antigenic forms of the enzyme. Diabetologia 35, 380–384 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00401206

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Key words

  • Autoantigens
  • autoantibodies
  • glutamic acid decarboxylase
  • pancreatic islets