A rapid approach to rational water pollution control strategies
- 74 Downloads
The formulation of rational wastewater control strategies is becoming increasingly important in many countries where, exploding urbanization, industrialization and/or tourism, often combined with improved standards of living and better awareness of the environmental problems, are resulting in enlarged pollution problems, but also in the availability of expanding financial resources for environmental protection. However, more often than one tends to believe, lack of planning, or planning with limited understanding of the principles involved, has resulted in solutions that are both expensive and incapable of addressing the key problems.
As rigorous planning is extremely resource intensive, and for this reason impractical for most study areas, the development of a much simplified analysis procedure, capable of generating rational, near-optimum, strategies and detailed action programs, is required, if proper environmental management is to be widely practiced.
In an effort to achieve the above objectives, a systems analysis approach is selected as the most suitable at rationalizing the allocation of available resources and at producing detailed action programs that promote implementation. In the context of this approach, new, easy to use models have been developed, while others, have been selected, adapted and streamlined in their use. The entire problem analysis and strategy synthesis procedures have thus been simplified and defined to a degree appropriate for widespread use, and the resultant procedure is actively promoted by WHO and UNEP.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Arceivala, S. J.: 1981, Wastewater Treatment and Disposal. Marcel Decker Inc. New York and Basel.Google Scholar
- Aubert, M. and Desirotte, M.: 1968, ‘Theorie Formalisee de la Diffusion Bacterienne’, R.I.O.M. Tome XII.Google Scholar
- Brooks, N. H.,: 1960, ‘Diffusion of Sewage Effluent in an Ocean Current’. Proceedings, First International Conference on Waste Disposal in the Marine Environment. University of California. Berkeley, Pergamon Press, N.Y.Google Scholar
- Brooks, N. and Fan, L.: 1969, ‘Numerical Solutions of Turbulent Buoyant Jet Problems’. Report KH-R-18, California Inst. Tech., Pasadena.Google Scholar
- Cederwall, K.: 1968, ‘Hydraulics of Marine Waste Water Disposal’, Chalmers Inst. of Technology.Google Scholar
- Chapra, S. C. and Reckhow, K. H.: 1978, ‘Expressing the Phosphorus Loading Concept in Probabilistic Terms’. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 36, 225–229.Google Scholar
- Ciecka, J., Fabian, R. and Merilatt, D.: 1979, ‘A Statistical Model for Small Lake Water Quality Management. Water Resources Bulletin’, 15(5), 1318–1330.Google Scholar
- Economopoulos, A. P.: 1982, ‘Rapid Assessment of Air, Water and Land Pollution Sources’, Publication No. 62, World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
- Economopoulos, A. P.: 1989, Management and Control of the Environment, H. W.deKoning (ed.), WHO/PEP/89.1, World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
- Economopoulos, A. P.: 1993, ‘Assessment of Sources of Air, Water and Land Pollution/A Guide to Rapid Inventory Techniques and their Use in formulating Environmental Control Strategies’, WHO/PEP/GETNET/93. 1-A&B, World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
- Economopoulos, A. P.: 1993, ‘Overview of the Recommended Water Pollution Management Approaches with Focus on East Mediterranean Region Climatic and Other Conditions’, Report on the Regional Workshop on Prevention of Pollution at Source, Nicosia, Cyprus, 20–23 September 1993, WHO-EM/PEH/457-E/L. WHO EMRO, p. 7–9 (Oct. 1993)Google Scholar
- Economopoulos, A. P.: 1994, ‘National Strategies for the Management of Solid and Liquid Wastes’, International Symposium on the Environmental Policies of EU and the Role of Local Authorities, Rodes, 21–22 November 1994, Central Union of Local Authorities of Greece.Google Scholar
- Economopoulos, A. P.: 1996 (exp.), One Week Training Workshop in Assessment of Sources of Air, Water, and Land Pollution. A Tutor's Guide. Part One: Workshop Organization and Lecture Notes. Part Two: Exercise Material and Evaluation Questionnaires, World Health Organization, Geneva, GETNET Manuals in the stage of field-testing.Google Scholar
- Fair, G. M., Goyer, J. and Ockun, D.: 1968, Wastewater Engineering, R.Mitchell (ed.), John Willey & Sons, New York, N.Y.Google Scholar
- Kaimakamidou, V., Lianou, A. and Economopoulos, A.: 1995, ‘Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Agriculture’, Helleco '95, Athens, 9 to 12 Nov. 1995, Technical Chamber of Greece, Proceedings Vol. 1, p. 394–403.Google Scholar
- Muelenhoff, W. P., Soldate, A. M.Jr., Baumgartner, D. J., Schuldt, M. D., Davis, L. R., and Frick, W. E.: 1985. ‘Initial Mixing Characteristics of Municipal Ocean Discharges’, Report EPA/600/3-85/073, US EPA, Washington DC.Google Scholar
- Pomeroy, R. D.: 1959, ‘The Empirical Approach for Determining the Required Length of an Ocean Outfall’, Proc. First International conference on “Waste disposal in the marine environment”, University of California, Berkeley, Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
- Roberts, P. J. W., Snyder, W. H. and Baumgartner, D. J.: 1989, ‘Ocean Outfalls’, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE. Vol. 115, no. 1.Google Scholar
- Streeter, H. W. and Phelps, E. B.: 1925, ‘A Study of the Pollution and Natural Purification of the Ohio River. Public Health Bulletin’, Vol. 146, U.S. Public Health Service, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
- Thomas, H. A.: 1948, ‘Pollution Load Capacity of Streams’, Water Sewage Works 95, 409.Google Scholar
- UNEP: 1982, Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution and its related protocols, UNEP, Nairobi.Google Scholar
- UNEP/WHO: 1985, Guidelines for the Computation Concerning Marine Outfall Systems for Liquid Effluents, UNEP/WG. 125/8.Google Scholar
- US Environmental Protection Agency: 1987, ‘The Enhanced Stream Water Quality Models QUAL2E and QUAL2E-UNCAS’, EPA-600/3-87-007. EPA, Athens, Georgia.Google Scholar
- Vollenweider, R.: 1975, ‘Input-Output Models with Special Reference to the Phosphorus Loading Concept in Limnology’, Zielsetzungen des Gewassrschutzes 37(1), 53–84.Google Scholar
- Vollenweider, R.: 1976, ‘Advances in Defining Critical Loading Levels for Phosphorus in Lake Eutrophication’, Memorie dell' Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia 33, 53–83.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization: 1989, Health Guidelines for the Use of Wastewater in Agriculture and Aquaculture, Technical Report Series 778, World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar