Skip to main content

The use of mesophilic cultures in the dairy industry

Abstract

The use of mesophilic starter cultures, containing group N Streptococcus and Leuconostoc species, in the dairy industry is examined. Bacteriophage attack is identified as the main cause of culture inhibition and criteria used to select stable mixed-strain starter cultures and phage-insensitive defined strains are established. The key aspects of culture propagation and storage are highlighted, as well as bulk-culture protection based on physical exclusion of phage and the use of phage-inhibitory media. Developments in the application of starter culture systems in different countries are examined and show that significant process control and elimination of phage problems can be achieved.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Anonymous. 1983. Dairy starters reviewed.—Dairy Ind. Int. 48(1): 19–23.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ausavanodom, N., White, R. S., Young, G. and Richardson, G. H. 1977. Lactic bulk culture system utilizing whey-based bacteriophage inhibitory medium and pH control II. Reduction of phosphate requirements under pH control.—J. Dairy Sci. 60: 1245–1251.

    Google Scholar 

  • Birlison, F. G. T. and Stanley, G. 1982. Experiences with “Phase 4” medium for improving bulk starter production.—Dairy Ind. Int. 47(7): 27–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boussemaer, J. P., Schrauwen, P. P., Sourrouille, J. L. and Guy, P. 1980. Multiple modification/restriction systems in lactic streptococci and their significance in defining a phage-typing system. J. Dairy Res. 47: 401–409.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chapman, H. R. 1978. Direct vat inoculation of milk with freeze-dried starters for making cheddar cheese.—J. Soc. Dairy Technol. 31: 99–101.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cogan, T. M. 1975. Bacteriophage relationships in commercial cheese cultures.-An Foras Taluntais Tech. Bull. 2-75, Index I.

  • Cogan, T. M. 1983. Some aspects of the metabolism of dairy starter cultures.—Irish J. Food Sci. Technol. 7: 1–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Collins, E. B. 1962. Behaviour and use of lactic streptococci and their bacteriophages.—J. Dairy Sci. 45: 552–558.

    Google Scholar 

  • Condon, S. 1983. Aerobic metabolism of lactic streptococci.—Irish J. Food Sci. Technol. 7: 15–26.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cox, W. A., Stanley, G. and Lewis, J. E. 1978. Starters: purpose, production and problems, p. 279–296. In F. A.Skinner and L. B. Quesnel (eds.), Streptococci,-Academic Press, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crawford, R. J. M. 1973. Starter problems in the United Kingdom.—Milk Ind. 72:(3) 22–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crawford, R. J. M. and Galloway, J. H. 1962. Bacteriophage contamination of mixed-strain cultures in cheesemaking-Proc. XVI Intern. Dairy Congr., Copenhagen, Vol. B, p. 785–791.

  • Czulak, J., Bant, D. J., Blyth, S. C. and Grace, J. B. 1979. A new cheese starter system. Dairy Ind. Int. 44 (2): 17–19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Daly, C. 1983. Starter culture developments in Ireland.—Irish J Food Sci. Technol. 7: 39–48.

    Google Scholar 

  • Daly, C. and Fitzgerald, G. F. 1982. Bacteriophage DNA restriction and the lactic streptococci. p. 213–216. In D. Schlessinger (ed.), Microbiology-1982, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D. C.

    Google Scholar 

  • Daniell, S. D. and Sandine, W. E. 1981. Development and commercial use of a multiple strain starter. J. Dairy Sci. 64: 407–415.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davey, G. P. and Pearce, L. E. 1980. The use of Streptococcus cremoris strains cured of diplococcin production as cheese starters. N. Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol. 15: 51–57.

    Google Scholar 

  • Delaney, J. M., Daly, C., Tobin, K. and Reville, W. J. 1979. Morphology and growth characteristics of lysogenic bacteriophage from lactic streptococci. Soc. Gen. Microbiol. Quart. 6: 158–159.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fitzgerald, G. F., Daly, C., Brown, L. R. and Gingeras, T. R. 1982. ScrFI: a new sequence-specific endonuclease from Streptococcus cremoris. Nucl. Acids. Res. 10: 8171–8179.

    Google Scholar 

  • Galesloot, Th.E. and Hassing, F. 1962. Enkele waarnemingen betreffende het gedrag van zuursels in ontkalkte melk en in melk voorzien van calciumbindende zouten. Neth. Milk Dairy J. 16: 117–130.

    Google Scholar 

  • Galesloot, Th. E., Hassing, F. and Stadhouders, J. 1966. Differences in phage sensitivity of starters propagated in practice and in a dairy research laboratory.-Proc. XVII Intern. Dairy Congr. Munich, Vol. D, p. 491–498.

  • Gasson, M. J. 1983. Genetic transfer systems in lactic acid bacteria. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 49: 275–282.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gilliland, S. E. 1971. Strain balance of multiple strain lactic streptococcus concentrated cultures. J. Dairy Sci. 54: 1129–1133.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gilliland, S. E. 1977. Preparation and storage of concentrated cultures of lactic streptococci. J. Dairy Sci. 60: 805–809.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gilliland, S. E. and Speck, M. L. 1974. Frozen concentrated cultures of lactic starter bacteria. A review.—J. Milk Food. Technol. 37: 107–111.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gulstrom, T. J., Pearce, L. E., Sandine, W. E. and Elliker, P. R. 1979. Evaluation of commercial phage inhibitory media.—J. Dairy Sci. 62: 208–221.

    Google Scholar 

  • Heap, H. A. and Lawrence, R. C. 1976. The selection of starter strains for cheesemaking.—N. Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol. 11: 16–20.

    Google Scholar 

  • Heap, H. A. and Lawrence, R. C. 1981. Recent modifications to the New Zealand activity test for Cheddar cheese starters.—N. Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol. 15: 91–94.

    Google Scholar 

  • Henning, D. R., Sandine, W. E., Elliker, P. R. and Hays, H. A. 1965. Studies with a bacteriophage inhibitory medium. I. Growth of single strain lactic streptococci and leuconostoc.—J. Milk Food Technol. 28: 273–277.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hermelstein, N. H. 1982. Advanced bulk starter medium improves fermentation processes.—Food Technol. 36 (8): 69–76.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hicks, C. L., Marks, F., O'Leary, J. and Langlois, B. E. 1982. Effect of culture media on cheese yiel.—Proc. Fifth Biennial Cheese Industry Conf., Utah State University, Logan, Utah, U.S.A.

  • Huggins, A. R. and Sandine, W. E. 1977. Incidence and properties of temperate bacteriophages induced from lactic streptococci.—Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33: 184–191.

    Google Scholar 

  • Huggins, A. R. and Sandine, W. E. 1979. Selection and characterization of phage-insensitive lactic streptococci.—J. Dairy Sci. 62 (Suppl. 1): 70–71.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hull, R. R. 1977. Control of bacteriophage in cheese factories.—Austr. J. Dairy Technol. 32: 65–66.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hull, R. R. 1978. A factory derived starter selection program for bacteriophage control where single strain starters are used.—Proc. Third Biennial Cheese Industry Conf., Utah State University, Logan, Utah, U.S.A.

  • Hurley, M., Timmons, P., Drinan, F., Cogan, T. and Daly, C. 1982. Selection and use of multiple strain starters for Cheddar cheese manufacture.—Irish. J. Food Sci. Technol. 6: 210.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hynd, J. 1976. The use of concentrated single strain starters in Scotland.—J. Soc. Dairy Technol. 29: 39–45.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jarvis, A. W. 1981. The use of whey-derived phage-resistant starter strains in New Zealand cheese plants.—N. Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol. 16: 25–31.

    Google Scholar 

  • LaGrange, W. S. and Reinbold, G. W. 1968. Starter culture costs in Iowa Cheddar cheese plants.—J. Dairy Sci. 51: 1985–1990.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lawrence, R.C. 1977. Selection of starter strains.—N. Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol. 50th Jubilee Ed., 175–180.

  • Lawrence, R. C. 1978. Action of bacteriophages on lactic acid bacteria: consequences and protection.—N. Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol., 13: 129–136.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lawrence, R. C., Heap, H. A., Limsowtin, G. and Jarvis, A. W. 1978. Cheddar cheese starters: current knowledge and practices of phage characteristics and strain selection.—J. Dairy Sci. 61: 1181–1191.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lawrence, R. C. and Pearce, L. E. 1972. Cheese starters under control.—Dairy Ind. 37: 73–78.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lawrence, R. C., Thomas, T. D. and Terzaghi, B. E. 1976. Reviews of the progress of dairy science: cheese starters.—J. Dairy Res. 43: 141–193.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ledford, R. A. and Speck, M. L. 1979. Injury of lactic streptococci by culturing in media containing high phosphates.—J. Dairy Sci. 62: 781–784.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leenders, G. J. M. and Stadhouders, J. 1981. Protection of bulk starters against contamination with disturbing bacteriophage.—Netherlands Institute for Dairy Research (NIZO), Ede, The Netherlands, NOV-767.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewis, J. E. 1956. A new approach to the problem of phage control during the production of commercial cheese-starters.—J. Soc. Dairy Technol. 9: 123–128.

    Google Scholar 

  • Limsowtin, G. K. Y., Heap, H. A. and Lawrence, R. C. 1977. A multiple starter concept for cheesemaking.—N. Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol. 12: 101–106.

    Google Scholar 

  • Limsowtin, G. K. Y., Heap, H. A. and Lawrence, R. C. 1978. Heterogeneity among strains of lactic streptococci.—N. Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol. 13: 1–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Limsowtin, G. K. Y. and Terzaghi, B. E. 1976. Phage resistant mutants: their selection and use in cheese factories.—N. Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol. 11: 251–256.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lindgren, B., Jonsson, H. and Leesement, H. 1974. Milk with reduced lactose content for preparation of lactic acid starter culture concentrates.—Proc. XIX Intern. Dairy Congr., New Delhi, Vol. 1E, p. 431–432.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lloyd, G. T. 1971. New developments in starter technology.—Dairy Sci. Abstr. 33: 411–416.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marshall, R. J. and Berridge, N. J. 1976. Selection and some properties of phage-resistant starters for cheesemaking.—J. Dairy Res. 43: 449–458.

    Google Scholar 

  • McKay, L. L. 1983. Functional properties of plasmids in lactic streptococci.—Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 49: 259–274.

    Google Scholar 

  • O'Brien, M. A. and Daly, C. 1980. Bacteriophage-host interactions in a mixed strain starter culture system.—Irish J Food Sci. Technol. 4: 68.

    Google Scholar 

  • Osborne, R. J. W. 1977. Production of frozen concentrated cheese starters by diffusion culture. —J. Soc. Dairy Technol. 30: 40–44.

    Google Scholar 

  • Park, C. and McKay, L. L. 1975. Induction of prophage in lactic streptococci isolated from commercial dairy starter cultures.—J. Milk Food Technol. 38: 594–597.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pearce, L. E. 1969. Activity test for cheese starter cultures.—N. Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol. 4: 246–247.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reddy, M. S., Vedamuthu, E. R., Washam, C. J. and Reinbold, G. W. 1972. Agar medium for differential enumeration of lactic streptococci.—Appl. Microbiol. 24: 947–952.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reiter, B. 1956. Inhibition of lactic streptococcus bacteriophage.—Dairy Ind. 21: 877–879.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reiter, B. 1973. Some thoughts on cheese starters.—J. Soc. Dairy Technol. 26: 3–15.

    Google Scholar 

  • Richardson, G. H. 1982. Need for standards for culture tanks and culture control equipment.—Proc. Fifth Biennial Cheese Industry Conf., Utah State University, Logan, Utah, U.S.A.

  • Richardson, G. H., Cheng, C. T. and Young, R. 1977. Lactic bulk culture system utilizing a whey-based bacteriophage inhibitory medium and pH control. I. Applicability to American style cheese.—J. Dairy Sci. 60: 378–386.

    Google Scholar 

  • Richardson, G. H., Ernstrom, C. A. and Hong, G. L. 1981. The use of defined starter strains and culture neutralisation in U.S. cheese plants.—Cult. Dairy Prod. J. 16: 11–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Richardson, G. H., Hong, G. L. and Ernstrom, C. A. 1980. Defined single strains of lactic streptococci in bulk culture for Cheddar and Monterey cheese manufacture.—J. Dairy Sci. 63: 1981–1986.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sanders, M. E. and Klaenhammer, T. R. 1981. Evidence for plasmid linkage of restriction and modification in Streptococcus cremoris KH.—Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 42: 944–950.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sandine, W. E. 1977. New techniques in handling lactic cultures to enhance their performance. —J. Dairy Sci. 60: 822–828.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sozzi, T. 1972. Etude sur l'exigence en calcium des phages des ferments lactiques.—Milchwissenschaft 27: 503–507.

    Google Scholar 

  • Speckman, C. A., Sandine, W. E. and Elliker, P. R. 1974. Lyophilized lactic acid starter culture concentrates: preparation and use in inoculation of vat milk for Cheddar and cottage cheese.—J. Dairy Sci. 57: 165–173.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stadhouders, J. 1975. Microbes in milk and dairy products. An ecological approach.—Neth. Milk Dairy J. 29: 104–126.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stadhouders, J., Jansen, L. A. and Hup, G. 1969. Preservation of starters and mass production of starter bacteria.—Neth. Milk Dairy J 23: 182–199.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stadhouders, J. and Leenders, G. J. M. 1981. The effect of phage contamination on the activity of mixed-strain starters.—Netherlands Institute for Dairy Research (NIZO), Ede, The Netherlands, NOV-769.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stadhouders, J. and Leenders, G. J. M. 1982. The effect of phage contamination on the activity of mixed strain starters in relation to process control.—Netherlands Institute for Dairy Research (NIZO), Ede, The Netherlands, NOV-890.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stanley, G. 1977. The manufacture of starters by batch fermentation and centrifugation to produce concentrates.—J. Soc. Dairy Technol. 30: 36–39.

    Google Scholar 

  • Teuber, M. and Lembke, J. 1983. The bacteriophages of lactic acid bacteria with emphasis on genetic aspects of group N lactic streptococci.—Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 49: 283–295.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomas, T. D. and Lowrie, R. J. 1975. Starters and bacteriophages in lactic acid casein manufacture II. Development of a controlled starter system.—J. Milk Food Technol. 38: 275–278.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thunell, R. K., Bodyfelt, F. W. and Sandine, W. E. 1983a. Economic comparisons of Cheddar cheese manufactured with defined strain and commercial cultures.—J. Dairy Sci., in press.

  • Thunell, R. K., Bodyfelt, F. W. and Sandine, W. E. 1983b. Defined strains and phage-insensitive mutants for commercial manufacture of cottage cheese and cultured buttermilk.—J. Dairy Sci., in press.

  • Thunell, R. K., Sandine, W. E. and Bodyfelt, F. W. 1981. Phage-insensitive, multiple-strain starter approach to Cheddar cheese making.—J. Dairy Sci 64: 2270–2277.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tofte Jesperson, N. J. 1977. The use of commercially available concentrated starters.—J. Soc. Dairy Technol. 30: 47–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Turner, K. W., Davey, G. P., Richardson, G. H. and Pearce, L. E. 1979. The development of a starter handling system to replace traditional mother cultures.—N. Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol. 14: 16–22.

    Google Scholar 

  • Walker, A. L., Mullan, W. M. A. and Muir, M. E. 1981 A survey of bulk starter production in the cheese industry.—J. Soc. Dairy Technol. 34: 78–84.

    Google Scholar 

  • Washam, C. J., Black, C. H., Sandine, W. E. and Elliker, P. R. 1966. Evaluation of filters for removal of bacteriophages from air.—Appl. Microbiol. 14: 497–505.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wigley, R. C. 1977. The use of commercially available concentrated starters.—J. Soc. Dairy Technol. 30: 45–47.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Daly, C. The use of mesophilic cultures in the dairy industry. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 49, 297–312 (1983). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00399505

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00399505

Keywords

  • Significant Process
  • Culture System
  • Process Control
  • Starter Culture
  • Dairy Industry